BIOL 1106 LAB EXAM #3 REVIEW Mitosis 1. Mitosis consists of consecutive cell divisions producing _(identical/non- identical) (haploid/diploid) daughter cells. 2. Be able to identify o

BIOL 1106 LAB EXAM #3 REVIEW

Mitosis

1. Mitosis consists of consecutive cell divisions producing _(identical/non- identical) (haploid/diploid) daughter cells.
2. Be able to identify on a diagram or model a cell in Interphase & Mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis.
3. Mitosis is division of the

4. Know the main events that happen in the stages of mitosis
Prophase: _

Metaphase: Anaphase: Telophase:
5. Know the difference between animal and plant Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm.
– In animal cells, cytokinesis involves the formation of a , which contracts to pinch the cell in two.
– In plant cells, small vesicles containing cell wall materials fuse to form a

, which grows outwards to complete the formation of two daughter cells

6. The two sister chromatids of a chromosome are formed during what stage of the cell cycle?

by what process?

7. After formation of daughter cells by mitosis, is the DNA identical or not?

8. During which phase of the cell cycle are chromosomes

a. Maximally condensed?

b. Least condensed?

9. During prophase, each chromosome is made up of chromatids that are held together by a

Meiosis
1. Meiosis consists of consecutive cell divisions producing _(identical/non-
identical) (haploid/diploid) daughter cells.
2. The two cell divisions are referred to as and

3. Know the function and key characteristics of the different phases of meiosis I and II (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis). Be able to recognize each stage on a diagram or with a model.
4. MEIOSIS I SEPARATES HOMOLOGOUS (MATERNAL/PATERNAL) CHROMOSOMES.

Meiosis I forms two ( identical/non-identical) (haploid/diploid) cells
Hence, each new daughter cell receives either the copy or the copy of each

.

At the end of Meiosis I, the homologous chromosomes have been separated into 2 HAPLOID daughter cells: each now contains 23 chromosomes.
Remember, each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids (i.e, the chromosomes are still duplicated, hence we need a second round of cell division (meiosis II) to produce cells with unduplicated chromosomes

5. MEIOSIS II: SEPARATES THE SISTER CHROMATIDS
The two haploid cells formed during meiosis I divide again by meiosis II, resulting in four (
identical/non-identical) (haploid/diploid) cells. The division is similar to mitosis and consists of Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II. At the end of meiosis II, there are four haploid cells

6. Be able to recognize each stage on a diagram or with a model.

7. Complete the following table for a human cell with a diploid number of 46

Stage of meiosis # of
Cells # of
chromosomes in each Cell Chromosome structure
(duplicated/unduplicated) Diploid or
Haploid
Before Meiosis
End of Meiosis I
End of Meiosis II
8. At the end of meiosis I

1) is the cell haploid or diploid?

2) Do the chromosomes consist of 1 or 2 chromatids?

9. At the end of meiosis II

3) is the cell haploid or diploid?

4) Do the chromosomes consist of 1 or 2 chromatids?

10. When do the chromosomes replicate in preparation for meiosis?

11. The two sister chromatids in a chromosome before meiosis I are to each other

12. The two sister chromatids of each chromosome are separated from each other during

13. Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles during

14. What is the overall function of meiosis I?

15. What is the overall function of meiosis II?

16. If a diploid cell has 46 chromosomes, how many tetrads will be formed during prophase I?

17. Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards opposite poles during of meiosis
The two sister chromatids are separated from each other during of

18. List the three sources of genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms?

1.

2.

3.

19. If a cell has a diploid # of 10, how many different combinations of chromosomes are possible after meiosis I?

Mendelian Genetics
1. For each trait, how many alleles are present in an individual?

2. For each trait, how many alleles are present in a gamete?

3. Which one of the two Mendel’s laws does this represent?

4. Know the definition of:

Homozygous dominant:
Homozygous recessive:
Heterozygote:

5. Know how to fill out and analyze Punnett squares: For example Purple (P) is dominant to white

(p) for flower color. Determine the outcome of the following crosses.

A) Homozygous dominant X Homozygous recessive

Parent Genotype: Phenotype :
Gametes :

Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

B) Heterozygote X Heterozygote
Parent Genotype:

Phenotype :

Gametes :

Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

C) Homozygous dominant X Heterozygote
Parent Genotype:

Phenotype :

Gametes :

Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

6. Know what phenotype you would expect for a give genotype. For example, Orange flowers (O) are dominant over yellow (o).What is the genotype and phenotype of the following flowers:
Oo: OO:
oo:

7. Know what kind of cross to carry out if you know the phenotype, but do not know the genotype.

For example, Round seeds (R) is dominant to wrinkled seeds (r). How do you determine the genotype of a plant that has round seeds?
What kind of cross is this called?

8. Know how to solve genetic problems, For example, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t). A tall plant was crossed with a dwarf plant. The offspring were 103 tall and 107 dwarf. What is the likely genotype of the parents?
9. Normal skin pigmentation (A) is dominant to albino (a) pigmentation. If two parents with normal skin pigmentation are carriers, what is the genotype of the parents?

Parent Genotype: Phenotype : Gametes :
Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

What is the probability that they will have an albino child?

10. Know that a Monohybrid cross will yield a genotype ratio of and a phenotype ratio

of

11. For unlinked genes, a Dihybrid cross will yield phenotypic ratio.

12. Which of Mendel’s laws does this illustrate?

13. Know how to define the gamete types possible and how to setup such crosses. For example, for unlinked genes, what are the possible gamete types for the following genotypes?
TtRr TTRR
TtrR tTrr WWRr WwRr Pprr PpRr
14. Know how to use the rule of probability to solve genetic crosses. For example, P is for purple and p is for white. R is for round seeds and r is for wrinkled seeds. In a cross PpRr X PpRr,
– what are the chances of the following genotype, Pprr?
– What are the chances of the following phenotype? Purple and Round?
If two parents were heterozygote for sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis and albinism, what are the chances they would have a child with cystic fibrosis who was a carrier for sickle cell anemia and albinism?
Non-Mendelian Genetics

1. Flower color in snapdragons is controlled by incomplete dominance inheritance. Complete the following cross.Use the genetic symbols: Red allele (CR), White allele (CW)
Parent Phenotype: Red flowers X Pink Flowers

Parent Genotypes

Phenotype :
Gametes :
Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

2. A male with blood type A, whose mother was type O and father was type AB, marries a women with type AB. Fill in the information below to determine what kind of offspring these individual can have?

Parent Phenotype: AB blood type X O blood type

Parent Genotype:

Phenotype :

Gametes :

Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

What is the probability they will have a type A child? : What is the probability they will have a type O child? :
3. A child is born with sickle cell anemia. Work out the cross predicting the genotypes of the parents to show how seemingly healthy parents can have a child with this disorder ? Parent Genotype:
Phenotype : Gametes :
Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:

4. In sickle cell anemia, a mutation in the gene causes the red blood cells to become deformed.
5. , is where a phenotype (such as ) is controlled by many genes.
6. genes are located on the same chromosome.

7. Normally, linked genes are inherited _, that is they disobey the law of

!

8. The process that breaks the connection between linked genes is called and occurs during
9. A male inherits his X chromosome from his

10. A female inherits her X chromosome from his

11. How many chromosomes are present in a gamete (egg or sperm)? (just checkin!)

12. Work out the cross for sex-linked trait hemophilia where the recessive allele prevents the body from making clotting factors. Use the genetic symbols: normal clotting (XH) hemophilia (Xh)? Parent Phenotype: Mother carrier X Father-Normal
Genotype :

Gametes :

Offspring (determined using the Punnett square)

Phenotypic ratio: Genotypic ration:
What is the probability they will have a daughter with hemophilia? : What is the probability they will have a son with hemophilia? :
13) Be able to use and analyze Pedigree charts and determine if a genetic disorder is recessive, dominant or sex-linked.

1. Why is it necessary to use dividing cells for karyotyping?

2.
For humans, # of autosomes =

For humans, # of sex chromosomes=

3.
Fill out the following table for a human somatic cell.

Total chromosomes Autosomes

Sex chromosome (& Type)
Normal male Normal female
Male, Down Syndrome

Female, Down syndrome Turner syndrome :
Kleinfelter’s syndrome : Super female :
Super male :

4. Be able to identify karyotypes for the above disorders

Sex Chromosome Genetic condition # of Barr bodies
Normal female
XY
2
Turner syndrome
XYY
Klinefelter’s syndrome

DNA Replication
1. To isolate DNA from a cell, you need to the tissue to break open the cells and add

detergent which and salt which

. The DNA is then precipitated out of solution by adding
2. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are:

3. Pyrimidine bases are : Purine bases are:

4. There are

5. DNA has a

(#)

bonds between the bases G and C and bonds between the bases A and T
shape.

(#)

6. Base pairing rules dictate that:

7. The chemical bond that joins two nucleotides together is called: formed between:
8. The chain formed as a result of joining nucleotides together is called a:

. This bond is

9. DNA molecules are made up of

# of such chains, which are

(parallel/antiparallel) to one another?

10. For the following base sequence of one strand of DNA, give the base sequence and orientation of the complementary strand? 5’ ACCGTTCTGGAATATGCTG 3’

11. In eukaryoytes, DNA combines with

proteins. This complex is called

12. The process of DNA replication is called

and this method was

proposed by

13. DNA replication begins at:

and

14. Know what is the function of each of these enzymes that are involved in DNA Replication: (Might be given function and asked enzyme or given enzyme and asked function)
Helicase: Topoisomerase: rimase: DNA polymerase III: DNA polymerase 1: DNA Ligase:
15. DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the end of a growing DNA chain. Hence,

DNA replication proceeds in the to direction.

16. During DNA replication, the DNA strand that is synthesized continuously is called the

strand and the other strand synthesized as pieces is called the strand. These short fragments are called and are joined together by
17. How many origins of replication are there in prokaryotes? Eukaryotes?

Amino Acids
1. If a codon GCA codes for the amino acid alanine in a prokaryote, what will it code for in a eukaryote? _______________________
2. What is a mutation?_________________________________________________
3. Distinguish between silent, missense and nonsense mutations. Be able to recognize these in an mRNA when comparing it to the normal mRNA sequence.
4. Does a mutation always result in a change of an amino acid sequence in a protein? Why? ________________________________________________
What is a frame-shift mutation? ___________________________________________

Gel Electrophoresis

1. What is the purpose of the buffer in gel electrophoresis?

1)

2)

2. What is the purpose of the loading dye in gel electrophoresis?

1)

2)

3. A tube contains a mixture of the following DNA fragments, 100 bp, 3 bp, 2000 bp, uncut DNA, 500 bp. List order of fragments that would migrate through a gel from fastest to slowest?

What DNA will be closest to the wells? Closest to the positive electrode?
4. What are restriction enzymes?

5. Where are restriction enzymes isolated from?

6. What is a restriction site?

7. List four applications of gel electrophoresis?

1)

2)

3)

4)

8. Know how to interpret bands on a gel such as for forensic determination of who committed a crime.
9. A circular piece of DNA was digested with EcoRI. The fragments were resolved by gel electrophoresis. After staining the gel, five DNA fragments were observed in the gel. How many EcoRI restriction sites are there in the original circular DNA?
10. A linear piece of DNA has five EcoRI restriction sites. How many fragments would be observed after digesting this piece of DNA with EcoRI, resolving by gel electrophoresis and staining?

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