Research Methodology project Paper Homework Help

Research Methodology project Paper

Chapter 3: Methodology
Chapter 3 documents how the project is conducted in enough detail so that replication by others is possible. The introduction begins with a summary of the project focus and purpose statement to reintroduce the reader to the need for the project. This can be summarized in three or four sentences from Chapter 1. Summarize the clinical questions in narrative format, and then outline the expectations for this chapter.
Remember, throughout this chapter, that verb tense must be changed from present tense (proposal) to past tense (DPI Project manuscript). Furthermore, consider what happened during data collection and analysis.
Statement of the Problem
This section restates the problem for the convenience of the reader. Copy and paste the Statement of the Problem from Chapter 1. Then, edit, blend, and integrate this material into the narrative. Change future tense to past tense for DPI Project manuscripts.
Clinical Question
This section restates the clinical question(s) for the project from Chapter 1. It then presents the matching of the variables. The section also briefly discusses the approaches to collecting the data to answer the clinical questions. The section should describe the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data for each variable. It also discusses why the design was selected to be the best approach to answer the clinical question(s).
Project Methodology
This section describes the research methodology for the project (quantitative, and explains the rationale for selecting this particular methodology. It also describes why this methodology was selected as opposed to the alternative methodologies. This section should elaborate on the Methodology section (from Chapter 1) providing the rationale for the selected project method (quantitative). Arguments are supported by citations from articles and books on research methodology or design. It is also appropriate in this section to outline the predicted results in relation to the clinical questions based on the existing literature.
Project Design
This section elaborates on the nature of the Project Design section from Chapter 1. It includes a detailed description of, and a rationale for, the specific design for the project. It also discusses the specific project design for the project (quasi-experimental) and describes how it aligns to the selected methodology indicated in the previous section. Additionally, it describes why the selected design is the best option to collect the data to answer the clinical need for the project. It explains exactly how the selected design will be used to collect data for each variable. It identifies the specific instruments and data sources to be used to collect all of the different data required for the project. Arguments are supported by citations from articles and books on research methodology or design. This section should specify the independent, dependent, or classificatory variables, as appropriate. Be sure to relate the variables back to the research questions. A brief discussion of the type of data collection tool chosen (survey, interview, observation, etc.) can also be included in this section as related to the variables.
Population and Sample Selection
This section discusses the setting, total population, project population, and project sample. The discussion of the sample includes the research terminology specific to the type of sampling for the project. This section should include the following components:
 Describes the characteristics of the total population and the project population from which the project sample (project participants) is drawn.
 Describes the characteristics of the project population and the project sample.
 Clearly defines and differentiates the sample for the project (what is being studied) versus the number of people completing instruments on the project sample.
 Describes the project population size and project sample size and justifies the project sample size (e.g., power analysis) based on the selected design.
 Clearly defines and differentiates between the number for the project population and the project sample (for what is being studied) versus the number for the people who will complete any instruments.
 Details the sampling procedure including the specific steps taken to identify, contact, and recruit potential project sample participants from the project population.
 Describes the informed consent process, confidentiality measures, project participation requirements, and geographic specifics.
 If subjects withdrew or were excluded from the project, you must provide an explanation. This would be added for the final manuscript, and would not be present in the proposal.
Instrumentation or Sources of Data
This section fully identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected, as well as the specific instruments and sources used to collect those data (tests, questionnaires, interviews, databases, media, etc.). Discuss the specific instrument or source to collect data for each variable or group. Use subheadings for each data collection instrument or source of data and provide a copy of all instruments in an appendix.
If you are using an existing instrument, make sure to discuss in detail the characteristics of the instrument. For example, on a preexisting survey tool describe the way the instrument was developed and constructed, the validity and reliability of the instrument, the number of items or questions included in the survey, and the calculation of the score as appropriate.
Validity
This section describes and defends the procedures used to determine the validity of the data collected. Validity refers to the degree to which a project accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the investigator is attempting to measure. Ask if what is actually being measured is what was set out to be measured. As an investigator, you must be concerned with both external and internal validity.
For this section, provide specific validity statistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how they were developed.
Reliability
This section describes and defends the procedures used to determine the reliability of the data collected. Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure is replicable and yields the same result with repeated trials. For this section, provide specific reliability statistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how the statistics were developed. Explain specific approaches on how reliability will be addressed for qualitative data collection approaches.
Data Collection Procedures
This section details the entirety of the process used to collect the data. Describe the step-by-step procedures used to carry out all the major steps for data collection for the project in a way that would allow another investigator to replicate the project. The key elements of this section include:
 A description of the procedures for project sample recruitment, sample selection, and assignment to groups (if applicable).
 A description of the procedures for obtaining informed consent and for protecting the rights and well-being of the project sample participants, as well as those completing instruments on them.
 A description of the procedures adopted to maintain data securely, including the length of time data will be retained, where the data will be retained, and how the data will be destroyed.
 A description of the procedures for data collection, including how each instrument
or data source was used, how and where data were collected, and how data were recorded.
 An explanation of the independent and dependent variables (if applicable), and how the resulting change in those variables is measured (if applicable),
 An explanation of how control variables were maintained as a constant value (if applicable).
Data Analysis Procedures
This section provides a step-by-step description of the procedures to be used to conduct the data analysis. The key elements of this section include:
 A description of how the data were collected for each variable or group.
 A description of the type of data to be analyzed, identifying the descriptive, inferential, or nonstatistical analyses.
 Demonstration that the project analysis is aligned to the specific project design.
 A description of the clinical question(s).
 A detailed description of the relevant data collected for each stated clinical question.
 A description of how the raw data were organized and prepared for analysis.
Provides a step-by-step description of the procedures used to conduct the data analysis.
 A detailed description of any statistical and nonstatistical analysis to be employed.
 A rationale is provided for each of the data analysis procedures (statistical and
nonstatistical) employed in the project.
 A demonstration that the data analysis techniques align with the research design.
 The level of statistical significance for quantitative analyses is stated as appropriate.
 References to the software used for the data analyses and assurance that the language used to describe the data analysis procedure is consistently used in Chapters 4 and 5.
Ethical Considerations
This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the project, as well as how human subjects and data will be protected. The key ethical issues that must be addressed in this section include:
 Identify how any potential ethical issues will be addressed.
 Provide a discussion of ethical issues related to the project and the sample population of interest, institution, or data collection process.
 Address anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, lack of coercion, informed consent, and potential conflict of interest.
 Demonstrate adherence to the key principles of the Belmont Report (respect, justice, and beneficence) in the project design, sampling procedures, and within the theoretical framework, research problem, and questions.
 Discuss how the data will be stored, safeguarded, and destroyed.
 Discuss how the results of the project will be published.
 Discuss any potential conflict of interest on the part of the investigator.
 Reference IRB approval to conduct the project, which includes subject recruiting and informed consent processes, in regard to the voluntary nature of project.
 Include the IRB approval letter with the protocol number, informed consent/subject assent documents, site authorization letter(s), or any other measures required to protect the participants or institutions in an appendix.
Limitations
While Chapter 1 addresses the broad, overall limitations of the project, this section discusses in detail the limitations related to the research approach and methodology and the potential impacts on the results. This section describes any limitations related to the methods, sample, instrumentation, data collection process, and analysis. Other methodological limitations of the project may include issues with regard to the sample in terms of size, population and procedure, instrumentation, data collection processes, and data analysis. This section also contains an explanation of why the existing limitations are unavoidable and are not expected to affect the results negatively.
Summary
This section restates what was written in Chapter 3 and provides supporting citations for key points. Your summary should demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the overall project design and analysis techniques. The Chapter 3 summary ends with a discussion that transitions the reader to Chapter 4.

Previous draft

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Project ………………………………………………………………………3
Background of the Project …………………………………………………………………………….4
Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………………………….4 Purpose of the Project …………………………………………………………………………………….5 Clinical Question(s) ……………………………………………………………………………………….6
Advancing Scientific Knowledge …………………………………………………………………….6 Significance of the Project ………………………………………………………………………………8 Rationale for Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………..9 Nature of the Project Design ………………………………………………………………………….10 Definition of Terms ………………………………………………………………………………………13 Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations …………………………………………………………13 Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Project ……………………………..14

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Project
Hospital falls are some of the most devastating events that patients can experience. Not only do they exacerbate already existing health complications but may also give rise to new complications to the patients. Statistic indicates that patient falls happen to more than one million patients in medical facilities across the country. Among the cases of unassisted falls, stroke patients made up the most significant aspect of this population. Stroke patients are susceptible to a wide range of complications (Leone & Adams, 2016). One of these complications is hospital falls.
The number of falls recorded annually is on the rise and the trend is expected to continue as there exists a gap between the knowledge of the intervention used in reducing these accidents and the willingness of the healthcare staff to implement the aforementioned measures. Some of the nurses fail to comply with strategies of minimizing the rate of falls even in the worst cases involving a Schmid fall score of greater than three (Leone & Adams, 2016). Some of the staff members also fail to utilize fall risk armbands, exit alarms, seatbelts, and other tools of minimizing the rates of fall.
In a desire to improve the provision of care services to this group, it is essential to develop effective strategies that would reduce falls among stroke patients receiving care in various facilities. When stroke patients experience falls, most of them are alone and not capable of receiving immediate help, such as when they are trying to use the toilets without calling for assistance, and this has an effect on rehabilitation process and recovery. This project is therefore worth conducting because it will provide the development and implementation of evidence-based methods as an effective way of reducing hospital falls among stroke patients.
Background of the Project
Hospital falls are not new phenomena in healthcare setting, however, the extent to which fall occurs among ischemic stroke patients and the ramifications of the damages has become a major concern to the health organizations. Current records indicate that there are over one million cases of hospital falls in the United States of America alone (Brady, et al., 2016). Out of this population, patients being treated for stoke form the vast majority. It is important to note that stroke patients have a plethora of challenges among them being a loss of function from one side of the body cause the inability to maintain balance. Patients suffering from stroke need constant assistance, and failure to assist may pose far-reaching ramifications to them. Literature reports that in most cases, stroke patients who experienced fall attempted to help themselves to the toilet and accidentally experienced the fall (Panfili, Metcalf, & Griebling, 2017).
The fact that stroke patients represented the largest diagnostic group experiencing falls calls for the attention of care providers to develop approaches that may be helpful in quality and safety improvement as well as reducing the health impact of the falls. The fact that patients being treated for stroke are the most vulnerable top hospital falls, which indicated that there are adverse complications among this group of patients need to be addressed. Implementing evidence-based care practices is one of the most effective ways of addressing this problem among patients.
Problem Statement
While the literature indicates that it is important to develop new measures for fall prevention programs in stroke populations, it is unknown if the implementation of Bladder Training and Timed-voiding program would decrease unassisted bathroom-related falls in the stroke population. Today, the United States is ranked among the nations with a developed workforce in the health sector. Despite this high ranking, a number of challenges still face the sector. Biggest of all is incidences of fall among the stroke patients (Brady, et al., 2016). This is a major concern to the health fraternity because, despite the steady reduction of fall among the stroke patients witnessed over the years, there has been a decrease in the number of individuals enrolled and retained into care who are victims of fall. Also, further research has it that, a number of deaths could be prevented with early enrolment to care of fall prevention.
This project will contribute to solving the above-identified problem by educating the staff the importance to understand the risk factors for falls occur in this population during inpatient rehabilitation in order to develop new measures for fall prevention programs. The learning program will be conducted in a manner that ensures that the rate of falls is reduced by 50 percent. The results obtained from this project will be critical in reducing the healthcare costs associated with falls among ischemic stroke patients. Moreover, the project will be useful in the growth of knowledge, especially in evidence-based research.
Purpose of the Project
The purpose this quantitative quasi-experimental project is to explore and understand contributing factors of falls in the stroke population by using survey specific patient-related data focused on demographics (age and gender), medical condition (type of stroke, comorbidities), days since admission, neurological deficits (mental status, physical or visual impairment), and potential value of the functional independence measure (FIM) score for predicting. Based on targeted pre-intervention findings from one group of stroke patients, design and implement an intervention specific to decrease unassisted bathroom related falls in stroke patients through a multidisciplinary timed voiding program. Compare the post intervention result in other group of stroke patients. In this regard, the research proposal seeks to integrate Change Theory and Patient-Centred Care through bladder training and timed-voiding program with an objective of preventing falls among hospitalized elderly patients to ascertain the effectiveness of decreasing unassisted bathroom-related falls post-ischemic stroke population.
Clinical Question and Variables
This research proposal is purposely driven to answer the following question: Among post ischemic stroke patients, how does bladder training compared to timed-voiding reduce unassisted bathroom related falls within four weeks period on a rehabilitation unit at a local Rehabilitation Institute? By answering this question, the paper provides a rationale for the classification of occasional falls among ischemic stroke patients as a cognitive behavioral issue. It will address the concerns of whether there are justifiable grounds to believe that cognitive behavioral approaches are likely to have an impact on occasional falls among ischemic stroke patients.
Owing to the increased number of falls witnessed among hospitalized patients, the trend is most likely to continue. This is because of the existence of a gap between knowledge of intervention used to reduce these incidences, and willingness of healthcare professionals to implement these measures. These falls are the leading cause of deaths related to injury among ischemic stroke patients and come with very high health costs (Brady, et al., 2016). Will preventing falls among ischemic stroke patients and reducing the current statistics on the same by 50 percent be achievable through educating nurses through the use of handouts, brochures, and posters?
Advancing Scientific Knowledge
Theoretical foundations and review of the literature/themes. The identification of the nature of the problem, developing and implementing the most appropriate responses to the falls among stroke victims is critical in lessening the burdening of care on care providers. In this paper, the RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) was used to identify strategies for an effective program. The RE-AIM is a systematic pathway through which the falls may be analyzed and appropriate strategies adopted to end the problem (Glasgow, Boles, & Vogt, 1999).
In the recent past, the model has increasingly played a critical role in addressing complex medical complications (Day et al., 2011). At a time when medical health complications are increasing, it behooves care providers to use equally complex methods. The falls among stroke patients qualify as complex medical complications that call for the establishment of the intervention of a complex procedure such as RE-AIM processes. Additionally, the cost-effective qualities of the RE-AIM approaches make it undoubtedly essential for this the hospital falls among stroke patients.
Review of Literatures
Practical consideration. Cognitive behavioral changes are desirable for stroke patients experiencing occasional falls. Thus, the development of effective cognitive behavioral change approaches would be critical in reducing the instances of falls. Roe et al., (2007) indicated that in these circumstances, bladder training as well as prompted voiding, together with active client participation will go a long way in reducing the cases of falls among stroke patients. Active client participation is the anchor that holds this approach as it allows the patients to have practiced the desired changes.
Psychological and medical intervention. Mehdi et al. (2013) in an investigation that timed voiding has proven to be effective in reducing the instances of fall among stroke patients in bathrooms. Over the years, various researchers have investigated the impact of timed voiding, and there is compelling evidence to suggest that training in this line would be effective in reducing the cases of falls among the patients (Breimaier, Halfens, & Lohrmann, 2015). Timed voiding is adaptive training that would allow the patients to cope with their environment. As a result of the adaptation, the individuals would have an improved understanding of their environments and subsequently improve their interaction with their environment as well as their care providers.
The significance of the Project
Falls among patients in hospitals are not new in care practices. While there have been approaches and studies that have been aimed at reducing these incidences and possibly mitigating their adverse effects, this project provides a critical examination of established approaches and their contribution specifically to the fall incidences among stroke patients. The paper generates a standard that is uniquely tailored to the conditions and needs of stroke patients.
According to Leone and Adams (2016), it is evident that falls have devastating effects on patients that leads to burdens in their families and the healthcare systems. Owing to the costs that this may come with, compulsory assessment and screening for the fall risk are a must. The implication of this project is that it will facilitate screening in the hospital, and ambulatory settings and intervention measures are taken immediately. When this is practiced, meaningful results are seen in an aim to prevent falls among ischemic stroke patients. This calls for the coordination between physicians and other healthcare providers to offer the most efficient multifactorial intervention measures to clients seeking such services. Each fall that is prevented in any of the measures is a benefit to both the healthcare system, healthcare team, the patient and their family members.
This project fits into the current body of research by providing an insight into how both family and patient education on fall risks, with frequent early mobilization, can be used to prevent morbidities that come after falling among ischemic stroke patients. Nurses should also focus on doing away with barriers to ambulation or transfer while minimizing the use of restraints’ access to patients’ personal items and hearing aids or glasses should be within reach, so that the patient may not have difficulty in accessing them that may lead to a fall.
The potential practical application and implication for the practice of this project are that it will help solve some of the challenges posed by interventions currently being used to addresses the issue of fall among ischemic stroke patients. It will help implement alternatives interventions such as fall indicator signs, socks with high skid resistance, and risk armbands. When healthcare practitioners are imparted with the relevant skills of preventing falls among ischemic stroke patients, and they implement the acquired knowledge effectively, fall among patients may be reduced.
Rationale for Methodology
The project utilizes a quantitative approach to clinical investigation and incorporates the quasi-experimental design to execute the purpose of the paper. Being an evidence-based care investigation whose data may be retrieved and investigated, the quantitative approach is the most suitable approach to obtain reliable findings. Considering the research question in this research, which seeks to establish whether educating nurses by use of brochures, handouts, and posters, shall prevent falls among ischemic stroke patients and reduce current statistics by 50 percent, the research instrument used to collect data shall be the use of pre/post test questionnaire/survey.
An intervention study shall be done in this project, to ensure that a clear distinction is established between individuals selected as controls versus intervention. It shall be a Randomized control trial whereby, some participants shall be assigned to an experimental group that shall be receiving the intervention measures being tested, in comparison to a control group that shall not be getting the intervention measures as proposed (Leone & Adams, 2016). In this intervention, the random allocation of subjects will ensure that both the control and intervention groups are similar in all aspects.
Nature of the Project Design
The Quasi-experimental design with survey specific patient-related data of one group of stroke patients who fell in four weeks before the program needs to be conducted. Then compare with fall debrief survey for post-program will be measured in four weeks period. In this way, it would be possible to retrieve the most appropriate data for the investigation. The decision to apply the quasi-experimental design has been necessitated by the fact that the evidence is available on various digital platforms.
One major public hospital is the selected sample setting for this research proposal. A target of 20 ischemic stroke patients; 10 males and 10 females will be sample number. The reason is that the majority of the population are middle-class citizens who can only afford health costs in Public Hospitals. This data will be collected only during the day in the selected public hospital. No data will be collected at night.
The key strategies that will be used to determine data collection in this research proposal will feature the age of patients, sex, ischemic stroke patients with a history of a fall and finally patients on follow up after sustaining injury secondary to a fall. Both male and female patients will be interrogated. This project will make use of stratified sampling which is appropriate to this qualitative research design. This sample which is dependent on age totally reflects the population in the purpose and problem statement. The chosen sample size is appropriate since that is the approximate number of elderly patients who visit this hospital with problems related to falls
Instrumentation or sources of data. The study will use data obtained from a local inpatient rehabilitation facility. However, not all the patients and nurses in the study population were chosen to take part in the survey. A smaller proportion that includes; 10 males and 10 females of the entire population was subjected to the process. During this process, the validation criteria used survey hospital data included is the ischemic stroke patients who were hospitalized for more than one day, regardless of gender.
Furthermore, nurses who had less than one week in the study population area were as well not to be part in the study. In addition, only the target group will be chosen to provide data, to ensure that, data collected is credible and reliable. Provision of data will be exactly the same time, and no alterations shall be made since this would interfere with the accuracy and credibility. Furthermore, data provided will specifically be used for the research study and not any other purpose. To ensure that the data provided shall be more reliable, only the group that provides a response that will be considered readable, feasible and accurate, according to the study population shall be used. The hospital is one of the major facilities handling stroke patients in the country and data obtained from it will be sufficient to make informed conclusions. Post-ischemic stroke patients in the facility will form the backbone of this inquiry.
Data collection procedures. All participants shall assemble in one venue within the chosen hospital facility on an earlier agreed date and time. Each participant will then be given instructions on how to fill out fall debrief survey for post-program. These post test survey will be collected and measured in four weeks period. Later, participants shall also be informed that the data provided will be handled with the utmost confidentiality. Those who will feel comfortable to write their names shall be allowed to do so. A survey of specific patient-related data focused on demographics (age and gender), medical condition (the type of stroke, comorbidities), days since admission, neurological deficits (mental status, physical or visual impairment), and potential value of the functional independence measure (FIM) score for predicting falls will also be conducted to help identify and assess risk factors for falls.
Data analysis procedures. Fall debrief data contained descriptive details of the falls and its circumstances which included the time of fall, day of week, location, call bell usage, the activity being attempted, the effect of medications that may impact falls. Data that shall be collected will be analyzed through calculations of mean, mode and median, to have appropriate estimates for information provided. This will be done through the use of Ms. Excel, which is very specific to detail. EHR database provides valuable tools to help identify and assess risk factors for falls. A step by step scrutiny of data provided by each participant will be recorded in terms of either mode, mean or median. These data also provide a method for evaluating and analyzing a new fall prevention program and pre, and post-program scores will be compared to determine its effectiveness.
Ethical considerations. The primary ethical concern of this investigation is the consideration of the confidentiality of patient information. The research considers the confidentiality of patient information as a critical element of ethical guidelines that will guide the study. Consequently, it will adhere to the provisions of HIPAA and follow the appropriate procedures to obtain patient consent to use their medical records in the investigation. It would be essential to use the information strictly for this investigation as provided by IRB.
Definition of Terms
Ischemic stroke. A disease that occurs due to an obstruction within a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain.
Bladder training. A form of behavior therapy used to treat urinary incontinence by increase the time between discharge from the bladder and the quantity of fluids held by the bladder.
Timed-voiding. Emptying the bladder regularly by taking control of the bladder.
Unassisted bathroom related falls. Posing greater risk of injury and hindering the quality of care.
Rehabilitation unit. Specific location for providing therapy to patients.
Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations
It is assumed that a score of three and above will indicate the patient has an increased risk for falling, and some interventions are needed which include; maximum utilization of a call bell when the patient needs assistance. It will also be assumed that there was a need for both family and patient education on fall risks, with frequent early mobilization to prevent morbidities that come after falling among the elderly. Another assumption is that nurses would focus on doing away with barriers to ambulation or transfer while minimizing the use of restraints’ access to patients’ personal items and hearing aids or glasses should be within reach, so that the patient may not have difficulty in accessing them that may lead to a fall.
The study limitations is that the participants in this research study are only nurses who provide direct care to the ischemic stroke patients who have fall problems there is a very big likelihood that information received will be biased in content. Secondly, all the nurses who participated in the study are from one public hospital in the United States. This might not reflect what is in the whole nation, leading to insufficient information for the study. Lastly, a certain proportion of the ischemic stroke patients who have fall problems lost contact during follow up due to rural-urban migration.
The delimitations of the study will ensure that a clear distinction is established between individuals selected as controls versus intervention. It shall be a Randomized control trial whereby, some participants shall be assigned to an experimental group that shall be receiving the intervention measures being tested, in comparison to a control group that shall not be getting the intervention measures as proposed. In this intervention, the random allocation of subjects will ensure that, both the control and intervention groups, are similar in all aspects.
Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Project
Results. This section will discuss the outcome of the quasi-experimental randomized stratified sampling. It will rely on the data obtained from the Quasi-experimental pre-test survey from sampled stroke patients who fell in four weeks period prior to the program. Then compare with fall debrief survey for post-program obtained from another group of stroke patients to compare before and after the new fall prevention program.
Discussion. This section will relate the outcome of the quasi-experimental of these stroke patients who fell in four weeks and the new measures for fall prevention programs, it is unknown if the implementation of Bladder Training and Timed-voiding program would decrease unassisted bathroom-related falls in the stroke population.
Conclusion and recommendation. This section will make a final observation on whether among post ischemic stroke patients, bladder training compared to timed-voiding reduce unassisted bathroom related falls within four weeks period on a rehabilitation unit at a local rehabilitation institute? It will then give a recommendation on how to integrate Change Theory and Patient-Centred Care through bladder training and timed-voiding program with an objective of preventing falls among hospitalized elderly patients to ascertain the effectiveness of decreasing unassisted bathroom-related falls post-ischemic stroke population.

References
Brady, M. C., Jamieson, K., Bugge, C., Hagen, S., McClurg, D., Chalmers, C., & Langhorne, P. (2016). Caring for continence in stroke care settings: a qualitative study of patients’ and staff perspectives on the implementation of a new continence care intervention. Clinical Rehabilitation, 30(5), 481-494.
Breimaier, H. E., Halfens, R. G., & Lohrmann, C. (2015). Effectiveness of multifaceted and tailored strategies to implement a fall-prevention guideline into acute care nursing practice: a before-and-after, mixed-method study using a participatory action research approach. BioMed Central Nursing, 14(1), 1. doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0064-z
Day, L., Finch, C. F., Hill, K. D., Haines, T. P., Clemson, L., Thomas, M., & Thompson, C. (2011). A protocol for evidence-based targeting and evaluation of statewide strategies for preventing falls among community-dwelling older people in Victoria, Australia. Injury Prevention, 17(2), 3. doi: org/10.1136/ip.2010.030775
Glasgow, R., Boles, S., & Vogt, T. (1999). What is RE-AIM? Retrieved from http://www.re-aim.org/about/what-is-re-aim/
Leone, R. M. & Adams, R. J. (2016). Safety standards: implementing fall prevention interventions and sustaining lower fall rates by promoting the culture of safety in an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Rehabilitation Nursing, 41, 26-32
Mehdi, Z., Birms, J. & Bhalla, A. (2013). Post-stroke incontinence. International Journal clinical practice, 67(11), 1128-1137
Panfili, Z., Metcalf, M., & Griebling, T. L. (2017). Contemporary evaluation and treatment of poststroke lower urinary tract dysfunction. Urologic Clinics, 44(3), 403-414.
Roe, B., Milne, J., Ostaszkiewicz, J. & Wallace, S. (2007). Systematic reviews of bladder training and voiding programs in adults: a synopsis of findings on theory and methods using metastudy techniques. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(1), 3–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04098.x.

Do you have a similar assignment and would want someone to complete it for you? Click on
the ORDER NOW option to get instant services at LindasHelp.com. We assure you of a well
written and plagiarism free papers delivered within your specified deadline.

AD:

HQD CUVIE PLUS | FUME EXTRA  HQD CUVIE AIR  |  FUME INFINITY  FUME ULTRA  MORE XXL VAPE  HQD VAPE  CUVIE PLUS 

AD: Visit HQDFUME.COM for the best and lowest prices of vape. We offer free shipping on all orders. Order HQD VAPE , FUME Disposable Vape , at the lowest prices 

HQD DISPOSABLE VAPE

Research Methodology project Paper

Chapter 3: Methodology
Chapter 3 documents how the project is conducted in enough detail so that replication by others is possible. The introduction begins with a summary of the project focus and purpose statement to reintroduce the reader to the need for the project. This can be summarized in three or four sentences from Chapter 1. Summarize the clinical questions in narrative format, and then outline the expectations for this chapter.
Remember, throughout this chapter, that verb tense must be changed from present tense (proposal) to past tense (DPI Project manuscript). Furthermore, consider what happened during data collection and analysis.
Statement of the Problem
This section restates the problem for the convenience of the reader. Copy and paste the Statement of the Problem from Chapter 1. Then, edit, blend, and integrate this material into the narrative. Change future tense to past tense for DPI Project manuscripts.
Clinical Question
This section restates the clinical question(s) for the project from Chapter 1. It then presents the matching of the variables. The section also briefly discusses the approaches to collecting the data to answer the clinical questions. The section should describe the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data for each variable. It also discusses why the design was selected to be the best approach to answer the clinical question(s).
Project Methodology
This section describes the research methodology for the project (quantitative, and explains the rationale for selecting this particular methodology. It also describes why this methodology was selected as opposed to the alternative methodologies. This section should elaborate on the Methodology section (from Chapter 1) providing the rationale for the selected project method (quantitative). Arguments are supported by citations from articles and books on research methodology or design. It is also appropriate in this section to outline the predicted results in relation to the clinical questions based on the existing literature.
Project Design
This section elaborates on the nature of the Project Design section from Chapter 1. It includes a detailed description of, and a rationale for, the specific design for the project. It also discusses the specific project design for the project (quasi-experimental) and describes how it aligns to the selected methodology indicated in the previous section. Additionally, it describes why the selected design is the best option to collect the data to answer the clinical need for the project. It explains exactly how the selected design will be used to collect data for each variable. It identifies the specific instruments and data sources to be used to collect all of the different data required for the project. Arguments are supported by citations from articles and books on research methodology or design. This section should specify the independent, dependent, or classificatory variables, as appropriate. Be sure to relate the variables back to the research questions. A brief discussion of the type of data collection tool chosen (survey, interview, observation, etc.) can also be included in this section as related to the variables.
Population and Sample Selection
This section discusses the setting, total population, project population, and project sample. The discussion of the sample includes the research terminology specific to the type of sampling for the project. This section should include the following components:
 Describes the characteristics of the total population and the project population from which the project sample (project participants) is drawn.
 Describes the characteristics of the project population and the project sample.
 Clearly defines and differentiates the sample for the project (what is being studied) versus the number of people completing instruments on the project sample.
 Describes the project population size and project sample size and justifies the project sample size (e.g., power analysis) based on the selected design.
 Clearly defines and differentiates between the number for the project population and the project sample (for what is being studied) versus the number for the people who will complete any instruments.
 Details the sampling procedure including the specific steps taken to identify, contact, and recruit potential project sample participants from the project population.
 Describes the informed consent process, confidentiality measures, project participation requirements, and geographic specifics.
 If subjects withdrew or were excluded from the project, you must provide an explanation. This would be added for the final manuscript, and would not be present in the proposal.
Instrumentation or Sources of Data
This section fully identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected, as well as the specific instruments and sources used to collect those data (tests, questionnaires, interviews, databases, media, etc.). Discuss the specific instrument or source to collect data for each variable or group. Use subheadings for each data collection instrument or source of data and provide a copy of all instruments in an appendix.
If you are using an existing instrument, make sure to discuss in detail the characteristics of the instrument. For example, on a preexisting survey tool describe the way the instrument was developed and constructed, the validity and reliability of the instrument, the number of items or questions included in the survey, and the calculation of the score as appropriate.
Validity
This section describes and defends the procedures used to determine the validity of the data collected. Validity refers to the degree to which a project accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the investigator is attempting to measure. Ask if what is actually being measured is what was set out to be measured. As an investigator, you must be concerned with both external and internal validity.
For this section, provide specific validity statistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how they were developed.
Reliability
This section describes and defends the procedures used to determine the reliability of the data collected. Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure is replicable and yields the same result with repeated trials. For this section, provide specific reliability statistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how the statistics were developed. Explain specific approaches on how reliability will be addressed for qualitative data collection approaches.
Data Collection Procedures
This section details the entirety of the process used to collect the data. Describe the step-by-step procedures used to carry out all the major steps for data collection for the project in a way that would allow another investigator to replicate the project. The key elements of this section include:
 A description of the procedures for project sample recruitment, sample selection, and assignment to groups (if applicable).
 A description of the procedures for obtaining informed consent and for protecting the rights and well-being of the project sample participants, as well as those completing instruments on them.
 A description of the procedures adopted to maintain data securely, including the length of time data will be retained, where the data will be retained, and how the data will be destroyed.
 A description of the procedures for data collection, including how each instrument
or data source was used, how and where data were collected, and how data were recorded.
 An explanation of the independent and dependent variables (if applicable), and how the resulting change in those variables is measured (if applicable),
 An explanation of how control variables were maintained as a constant value (if applicable).
Data Analysis Procedures
This section provides a step-by-step description of the procedures to be used to conduct the data analysis. The key elements of this section include:
 A description of how the data were collected for each variable or group.
 A description of the type of data to be analyzed, identifying the descriptive, inferential, or nonstatistical analyses.
 Demonstration that the project analysis is aligned to the specific project design.
 A description of the clinical question(s).
 A detailed description of the relevant data collected for each stated clinical question.
 A description of how the raw data were organized and prepared for analysis.
Provides a step-by-step description of the procedures used to conduct the data analysis.
 A detailed description of any statistical and nonstatistical analysis to be employed.
 A rationale is provided for each of the data analysis procedures (statistical and
nonstatistical) employed in the project.
 A demonstration that the data analysis techniques align with the research design.
 The level of statistical significance for quantitative analyses is stated as appropriate.
 References to the software used for the data analyses and assurance that the language used to describe the data analysis procedure is consistently used in Chapters 4 and 5.
Ethical Considerations
This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the project, as well as how human subjects and data will be protected. The key ethical issues that must be addressed in this section include:
 Identify how any potential ethical issues will be addressed.
 Provide a discussion of ethical issues related to the project and the sample population of interest, institution, or data collection process.
 Address anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, lack of coercion, informed consent, and potential conflict of interest.
 Demonstrate adherence to the key principles of the Belmont Report (respect, justice, and beneficence) in the project design, sampling procedures, and within the theoretical framework, research problem, and questions.
 Discuss how the data will be stored, safeguarded, and destroyed.
 Discuss how the results of the project will be published.
 Discuss any potential conflict of interest on the part of the investigator.
 Reference IRB approval to conduct the project, which includes subject recruiting and informed consent processes, in regard to the voluntary nature of project.
 Include the IRB approval letter with the protocol number, informed consent/subject assent documents, site authorization letter(s), or any other measures required to protect the participants or institutions in an appendix.
Limitations
While Chapter 1 addresses the broad, overall limitations of the project, this section discusses in detail the limitations related to the research approach and methodology and the potential impacts on the results. This section describes any limitations related to the methods, sample, instrumentation, data collection process, and analysis. Other methodological limitations of the project may include issues with regard to the sample in terms of size, population and procedure, instrumentation, data collection processes, and data analysis. This section also contains an explanation of why the existing limitations are unavoidable and are not expected to affect the results negatively.
Summary
This section restates what was written in Chapter 3 and provides supporting citations for key points. Your summary should demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the overall project design and analysis techniques. The Chapter 3 summary ends with a discussion that transitions the reader to Chapter 4.

Previous draft

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Project ………………………………………………………………………3
Background of the Project …………………………………………………………………………….4
Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………………………….4 Purpose of the Project …………………………………………………………………………………….5 Clinical Question(s) ……………………………………………………………………………………….6
Advancing Scientific Knowledge …………………………………………………………………….6 Significance of the Project ………………………………………………………………………………8 Rationale for Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………..9 Nature of the Project Design ………………………………………………………………………….10 Definition of Terms ………………………………………………………………………………………13 Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations …………………………………………………………13 Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Project ……………………………..14

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Project
Hospital falls are some of the most devastating events that patients can experience. Not only do they exacerbate already existing health complications but may also give rise to new complications to the patients. Statistic indicates that patient falls happen to more than one million patients in medical facilities across the country. Among the cases of unassisted falls, stroke patients made up the most significant aspect of this population. Stroke patients are susceptible to a wide range of complications (Leone & Adams, 2016). One of these complications is hospital falls.
The number of falls recorded annually is on the rise and the trend is expected to continue as there exists a gap between the knowledge of the intervention used in reducing these accidents and the willingness of the healthcare staff to implement the aforementioned measures. Some of the nurses fail to comply with strategies of minimizing the rate of falls even in the worst cases involving a Schmid fall score of greater than three (Leone & Adams, 2016). Some of the staff members also fail to utilize fall risk armbands, exit alarms, seatbelts, and other tools of minimizing the rates of fall.
In a desire to improve the provision of care services to this group, it is essential to develop effective strategies that would reduce falls among stroke patients receiving care in various facilities. When stroke patients experience falls, most of them are alone and not capable of receiving immediate help, such as when they are trying to use the toilets without calling for assistance, and this has an effect on rehabilitation process and recovery. This project is therefore worth conducting because it will provide the development and implementation of evidence-based methods as an effective way of reducing hospital falls among stroke patients.
Background of the Project
Hospital falls are not new phenomena in healthcare setting, however, the extent to which fall occurs among ischemic stroke patients and the ramifications of the damages has become a major concern to the health organizations. Current records indicate that there are over one million cases of hospital falls in the United States of America alone (Brady, et al., 2016). Out of this population, patients being treated for stoke form the vast majority. It is important to note that stroke patients have a plethora of challenges among them being a loss of function from one side of the body cause the inability to maintain balance. Patients suffering from stroke need constant assistance, and failure to assist may pose far-reaching ramifications to them. Literature reports that in most cases, stroke patients who experienced fall attempted to help themselves to the toilet and accidentally experienced the fall (Panfili, Metcalf, & Griebling, 2017).
The fact that stroke patients represented the largest diagnostic group experiencing falls calls for the attention of care providers to develop approaches that may be helpful in quality and safety improvement as well as reducing the health impact of the falls. The fact that patients being treated for stroke are the most vulnerable top hospital falls, which indicated that there are adverse complications among this group of patients need to be addressed. Implementing evidence-based care practices is one of the most effective ways of addressing this problem among patients.
Problem Statement
While the literature indicates that it is important to develop new measures for fall prevention programs in stroke populations, it is unknown if the implementation of Bladder Training and Timed-voiding program would decrease unassisted bathroom-related falls in the stroke population. Today, the United States is ranked among the nations with a developed workforce in the health sector. Despite this high ranking, a number of challenges still face the sector. Biggest of all is incidences of fall among the stroke patients (Brady, et al., 2016). This is a major concern to the health fraternity because, despite the steady reduction of fall among the stroke patients witnessed over the years, there has been a decrease in the number of individuals enrolled and retained into care who are victims of fall. Also, further research has it that, a number of deaths could be prevented with early enrolment to care of fall prevention.
This project will contribute to solving the above-identified problem by educating the staff the importance to understand the risk factors for falls occur in this population during inpatient rehabilitation in order to develop new measures for fall prevention programs. The learning program will be conducted in a manner that ensures that the rate of falls is reduced by 50 percent. The results obtained from this project will be critical in reducing the healthcare costs associated with falls among ischemic stroke patients. Moreover, the project will be useful in the growth of knowledge, especially in evidence-based research.
Purpose of the Project
The purpose this quantitative quasi-experimental project is to explore and understand contributing factors of falls in the stroke population by using survey specific patient-related data focused on demographics (age and gender), medical condition (type of stroke, comorbidities), days since admission, neurological deficits (mental status, physical or visual impairment), and potential value of the functional independence measure (FIM) score for predicting. Based on targeted pre-intervention findings from one group of stroke patients, design and implement an intervention specific to decrease unassisted bathroom related falls in stroke patients through a multidisciplinary timed voiding program. Compare the post intervention result in other group of stroke patients. In this regard, the research proposal seeks to integrate Change Theory and Patient-Centred Care through bladder training and timed-voiding program with an objective of preventing falls among hospitalized elderly patients to ascertain the effectiveness of decreasing unassisted bathroom-related falls post-ischemic stroke population.
Clinical Question and Variables
This research proposal is purposely driven to answer the following question: Among post ischemic stroke patients, how does bladder training compared to timed-voiding reduce unassisted bathroom related falls within four weeks period on a rehabilitation unit at a local Rehabilitation Institute? By answering this question, the paper provides a rationale for the classification of occasional falls among ischemic stroke patients as a cognitive behavioral issue. It will address the concerns of whether there are justifiable grounds to believe that cognitive behavioral approaches are likely to have an impact on occasional falls among ischemic stroke patients.
Owing to the increased number of falls witnessed among hospitalized patients, the trend is most likely to continue. This is because of the existence of a gap between knowledge of intervention used to reduce these incidences, and willingness of healthcare professionals to implement these measures. These falls are the leading cause of deaths related to injury among ischemic stroke patients and come with very high health costs (Brady, et al., 2016). Will preventing falls among ischemic stroke patients and reducing the current statistics on the same by 50 percent be achievable through educating nurses through the use of handouts, brochures, and posters?
Advancing Scientific Knowledge
Theoretical foundations and review of the literature/themes. The identification of the nature of the problem, developing and implementing the most appropriate responses to the falls among stroke victims is critical in lessening the burdening of care on care providers. In this paper, the RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) was used to identify strategies for an effective program. The RE-AIM is a systematic pathway through which the falls may be analyzed and appropriate strategies adopted to end the problem (Glasgow, Boles, & Vogt, 1999).
In the recent past, the model has increasingly played a critical role in addressing complex medical complications (Day et al., 2011). At a time when medical health complications are increasing, it behooves care providers to use equally complex methods. The falls among stroke patients qualify as complex medical complications that call for the establishment of the intervention of a complex procedure such as RE-AIM processes. Additionally, the cost-effective qualities of the RE-AIM approaches make it undoubtedly essential for this the hospital falls among stroke patients.
Review of Literatures
Practical consideration. Cognitive behavioral changes are desirable for stroke patients experiencing occasional falls. Thus, the development of effective cognitive behavioral change approaches would be critical in reducing the instances of falls. Roe et al., (2007) indicated that in these circumstances, bladder training as well as prompted voiding, together with active client participation will go a long way in reducing the cases of falls among stroke patients. Active client participation is the anchor that holds this approach as it allows the patients to have practiced the desired changes.
Psychological and medical intervention. Mehdi et al. (2013) in an investigation that timed voiding has proven to be effective in reducing the instances of fall among stroke patients in bathrooms. Over the years, various researchers have investigated the impact of timed voiding, and there is compelling evidence to suggest that training in this line would be effective in reducing the cases of falls among the patients (Breimaier, Halfens, & Lohrmann, 2015). Timed voiding is adaptive training that would allow the patients to cope with their environment. As a result of the adaptation, the individuals would have an improved understanding of their environments and subsequently improve their interaction with their environment as well as their care providers.
The significance of the Project
Falls among patients in hospitals are not new in care practices. While there have been approaches and studies that have been aimed at reducing these incidences and possibly mitigating their adverse effects, this project provides a critical examination of established approaches and their contribution specifically to the fall incidences among stroke patients. The paper generates a standard that is uniquely tailored to the conditions and needs of stroke patients.
According to Leone and Adams (2016), it is evident that falls have devastating effects on patients that leads to burdens in their families and the healthcare systems. Owing to the costs that this may come with, compulsory assessment and screening for the fall risk are a must. The implication of this project is that it will facilitate screening in the hospital, and ambulatory settings and intervention measures are taken immediately. When this is practiced, meaningful results are seen in an aim to prevent falls among ischemic stroke patients. This calls for the coordination between physicians and other healthcare providers to offer the most efficient multifactorial intervention measures to clients seeking such services. Each fall that is prevented in any of the measures is a benefit to both the healthcare system, healthcare team, the patient and their family members.
This project fits into the current body of research by providing an insight into how both family and patient education on fall risks, with frequent early mobilization, can be used to prevent morbidities that come after falling among ischemic stroke patients. Nurses should also focus on doing away with barriers to ambulation or transfer while minimizing the use of restraints’ access to patients’ personal items and hearing aids or glasses should be within reach, so that the patient may not have difficulty in accessing them that may lead to a fall.
The potential practical application and implication for the practice of this project are that it will help solve some of the challenges posed by interventions currently being used to addresses the issue of fall among ischemic stroke patients. It will help implement alternatives interventions such as fall indicator signs, socks with high skid resistance, and risk armbands. When healthcare practitioners are imparted with the relevant skills of preventing falls among ischemic stroke patients, and they implement the acquired knowledge effectively, fall among patients may be reduced.
Rationale for Methodology
The project utilizes a quantitative approach to clinical investigation and incorporates the quasi-experimental design to execute the purpose of the paper. Being an evidence-based care investigation whose data may be retrieved and investigated, the quantitative approach is the most suitable approach to obtain reliable findings. Considering the research question in this research, which seeks to establish whether educating nurses by use of brochures, handouts, and posters, shall prevent falls among ischemic stroke patients and reduce current statistics by 50 percent, the research instrument used to collect data shall be the use of pre/post test questionnaire/survey.
An intervention study shall be done in this project, to ensure that a clear distinction is established between individuals selected as controls versus intervention. It shall be a Randomized control trial whereby, some participants shall be assigned to an experimental group that shall be receiving the intervention measures being tested, in comparison to a control group that shall not be getting the intervention measures as proposed (Leone & Adams, 2016). In this intervention, the random allocation of subjects will ensure that both the control and intervention groups are similar in all aspects.
Nature of the Project Design
The Quasi-experimental design with survey specific patient-related data of one group of stroke patients who fell in four weeks before the program needs to be conducted. Then compare with fall debrief survey for post-program will be measured in four weeks period. In this way, it would be possible to retrieve the most appropriate data for the investigation. The decision to apply the quasi-experimental design has been necessitated by the fact that the evidence is available on various digital platforms.
One major public hospital is the selected sample setting for this research proposal. A target of 20 ischemic stroke patients; 10 males and 10 females will be sample number. The reason is that the majority of the population are middle-class citizens who can only afford health costs in Public Hospitals. This data will be collected only during the day in the selected public hospital. No data will be collected at night.
The key strategies that will be used to determine data collection in this research proposal will feature the age of patients, sex, ischemic stroke patients with a history of a fall and finally patients on follow up after sustaining injury secondary to a fall. Both male and female patients will be interrogated. This project will make use of stratified sampling which is appropriate to this qualitative research design. This sample which is dependent on age totally reflects the population in the purpose and problem statement. The chosen sample size is appropriate since that is the approximate number of elderly patients who visit this hospital with problems related to falls
Instrumentation or sources of data. The study will use data obtained from a local inpatient rehabilitation facility. However, not all the patients and nurses in the study population were chosen to take part in the survey. A smaller proportion that includes; 10 males and 10 females of the entire population was subjected to the process. During this process, the validation criteria used survey hospital data included is the ischemic stroke patients who were hospitalized for more than one day, regardless of gender.
Furthermore, nurses who had less than one week in the study population area were as well not to be part in the study. In addition, only the target group will be chosen to provide data, to ensure that, data collected is credible and reliable. Provision of data will be exactly the same time, and no alterations shall be made since this would interfere with the accuracy and credibility. Furthermore, data provided will specifically be used for the research study and not any other purpose. To ensure that the data provided shall be more reliable, only the group that provides a response that will be considered readable, feasible and accurate, according to the study population shall be used. The hospital is one of the major facilities handling stroke patients in the country and data obtained from it will be sufficient to make informed conclusions. Post-ischemic stroke patients in the facility will form the backbone of this inquiry.
Data collection procedures. All participants shall assemble in one venue within the chosen hospital facility on an earlier agreed date and time. Each participant will then be given instructions on how to fill out fall debrief survey for post-program. These post test survey will be collected and measured in four weeks period. Later, participants shall also be informed that the data provided will be handled with the utmost confidentiality. Those who will feel comfortable to write their names shall be allowed to do so. A survey of specific patient-related data focused on demographics (age and gender), medical condition (the type of stroke, comorbidities), days since admission, neurological deficits (mental status, physical or visual impairment), and potential value of the functional independence measure (FIM) score for predicting falls will also be conducted to help identify and assess risk factors for falls.
Data analysis procedures. Fall debrief data contained descriptive details of the falls and its circumstances which included the time of fall, day of week, location, call bell usage, the activity being attempted, the effect of medications that may impact falls. Data that shall be collected will be analyzed through calculations of mean, mode and median, to have appropriate estimates for information provided. This will be done through the use of Ms. Excel, which is very specific to detail. EHR database provides valuable tools to help identify and assess risk factors for falls. A step by step scrutiny of data provided by each participant will be recorded in terms of either mode, mean or median. These data also provide a method for evaluating and analyzing a new fall prevention program and pre, and post-program scores will be compared to determine its effectiveness.
Ethical considerations. The primary ethical concern of this investigation is the consideration of the confidentiality of patient information. The research considers the confidentiality of patient information as a critical element of ethical guidelines that will guide the study. Consequently, it will adhere to the provisions of HIPAA and follow the appropriate procedures to obtain patient consent to use their medical records in the investigation. It would be essential to use the information strictly for this investigation as provided by IRB.
Definition of Terms
Ischemic stroke. A disease that occurs due to an obstruction within a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain.
Bladder training. A form of behavior therapy used to treat urinary incontinence by increase the time between discharge from the bladder and the quantity of fluids held by the bladder.
Timed-voiding. Emptying the bladder regularly by taking control of the bladder.
Unassisted bathroom related falls. Posing greater risk of injury and hindering the quality of care.
Rehabilitation unit. Specific location for providing therapy to patients.
Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations
It is assumed that a score of three and above will indicate the patient has an increased risk for falling, and some interventions are needed which include; maximum utilization of a call bell when the patient needs assistance. It will also be assumed that there was a need for both family and patient education on fall risks, with frequent early mobilization to prevent morbidities that come after falling among the elderly. Another assumption is that nurses would focus on doing away with barriers to ambulation or transfer while minimizing the use of restraints’ access to patients’ personal items and hearing aids or glasses should be within reach, so that the patient may not have difficulty in accessing them that may lead to a fall.
The study limitations is that the participants in this research study are only nurses who provide direct care to the ischemic stroke patients who have fall problems there is a very big likelihood that information received will be biased in content. Secondly, all the nurses who participated in the study are from one public hospital in the United States. This might not reflect what is in the whole nation, leading to insufficient information for the study. Lastly, a certain proportion of the ischemic stroke patients who have fall problems lost contact during follow up due to rural-urban migration.
The delimitations of the study will ensure that a clear distinction is established between individuals selected as controls versus intervention. It shall be a Randomized control trial whereby, some participants shall be assigned to an experimental group that shall be receiving the intervention measures being tested, in comparison to a control group that shall not be getting the intervention measures as proposed. In this intervention, the random allocation of subjects will ensure that, both the control and intervention groups, are similar in all aspects.
Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Project
Results. This section will discuss the outcome of the quasi-experimental randomized stratified sampling. It will rely on the data obtained from the Quasi-experimental pre-test survey from sampled stroke patients who fell in four weeks period prior to the program. Then compare with fall debrief survey for post-program obtained from another group of stroke patients to compare before and after the new fall prevention program.
Discussion. This section will relate the outcome of the quasi-experimental of these stroke patients who fell in four weeks and the new measures for fall prevention programs, it is unknown if the implementation of Bladder Training and Timed-voiding program would decrease unassisted bathroom-related falls in the stroke population.
Conclusion and recommendation. This section will make a final observation on whether among post ischemic stroke patients, bladder training compared to timed-voiding reduce unassisted bathroom related falls within four weeks period on a rehabilitation unit at a local rehabilitation institute? It will then give a recommendation on how to integrate Change Theory and Patient-Centred Care through bladder training and timed-voiding program with an objective of preventing falls among hospitalized elderly patients to ascertain the effectiveness of decreasing unassisted bathroom-related falls post-ischemic stroke population.

References
Brady, M. C., Jamieson, K., Bugge, C., Hagen, S., McClurg, D., Chalmers, C., & Langhorne, P. (2016). Caring for continence in stroke care settings: a qualitative study of patients’ and staff perspectives on the implementation of a new continence care intervention. Clinical Rehabilitation, 30(5), 481-494.
Breimaier, H. E., Halfens, R. G., & Lohrmann, C. (2015). Effectiveness of multifaceted and tailored strategies to implement a fall-prevention guideline into acute care nursing practice: a before-and-after, mixed-method study using a participatory action research approach. BioMed Central Nursing, 14(1), 1. doi:10.1186/s12912-015-0064-z
Day, L., Finch, C. F., Hill, K. D., Haines, T. P., Clemson, L., Thomas, M., & Thompson, C. (2011). A protocol for evidence-based targeting and evaluation of statewide strategies for preventing falls among community-dwelling older people in Victoria, Australia. Injury Prevention, 17(2), 3. doi: org/10.1136/ip.2010.030775
Glasgow, R., Boles, S., & Vogt, T. (1999). What is RE-AIM? Retrieved from http://www.re-aim.org/about/what-is-re-aim/
Leone, R. M. & Adams, R. J. (2016). Safety standards: implementing fall prevention interventions and sustaining lower fall rates by promoting the culture of safety in an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Rehabilitation Nursing, 41, 26-32
Mehdi, Z., Birms, J. & Bhalla, A. (2013). Post-stroke incontinence. International Journal clinical practice, 67(11), 1128-1137
Panfili, Z., Metcalf, M., & Griebling, T. L. (2017). Contemporary evaluation and treatment of poststroke lower urinary tract dysfunction. Urologic Clinics, 44(3), 403-414.
Roe, B., Milne, J., Ostaszkiewicz, J. & Wallace, S. (2007). Systematic reviews of bladder training and voiding programs in adults: a synopsis of findings on theory and methods using metastudy techniques. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(1), 3–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04098.x.

Do you have a similar assignment and would want someone to complete it for you? Click on
the ORDER NOW option to get instant services at LindasHelp.com. We assure you of a well
written and plagiarism free papers delivered within your specified deadline.

AD:

HQD CUVIE PLUS | FUME EXTRA  HQD CUVIE AIR  |  FUME INFINITY  FUME ULTRA  MORE XXL VAPE  HQD VAPE  CUVIE PLUS