sociology2.docx – Assignment: – EssaysForYou

Explain YOUR culture to me.  How do you experience culture? (think about holidays you celebrate, religion, languages you speak, foods you eat, customs, mode of dress etc)
You must refer to the categories discussed in the text (material vs nonmaterial etc)
How does your culture differ from your parent’s practice of culture?

Apply at least five of the concepts learned this week to your own life.  Describe your culture. What are the material and nonmaterial elements of your culture (these two concepts must be included in the five)? How might you practice your culture differently than your parents (cues; your style of clothing, the music you consume, slang you use etc).
Responses must be a MINIMUM of THREE full paragraphs. They must include citations from the text and lecture material and all must include a reflection or applied component to the answer
3 pages please

Learning material to help support my assignment

Nature vs. Nurture
Are we a product of our biology or our environment? What do you think? Why?
This is a question that concerns a variety of academic disciplines. 
The Influence of Nature 
Those who focus on the influence of nature suggest that human behaviour is determined by genetics (e.g. the way they see it “biology is destiny”; our biology determines who we are). 
This kind of approach has been criticized as being biologically deterministic.  Biological determinism refers to “the idea that our behaviour is determined solely by our genetic make-up or other biological attributes”. 
The Influence of Nurture
On the other side of debate are those who argue for the significance of nurture. This position holds that we are products of our environment and our behaviour is the product of social interaction and learning. The social environment is crucial to an individual’s socialization. 
We are able to understand the importance of one’s social environment by looking at the devastating affects of social isolation. For example,  , and what he found was that a lack of social interaction had significant consequences such as fear or hostility. In another example, a young girl named Genie was discovered at the age of 13 in 1972 after having been locked in a room and tied down from the age of 20 months. She was studied and taught by experts at a children’s hospital. She acquired some skills but could not fully recover from the isolation and neglect. 
These examples demonstrate the profound significance of the social environment on individuals’ health, well-being and socialization. 
Are we a product of our biology or our environment? Both play an important role in who we are, how we behave and how we experience life.
(Cumming, 2020)

Human interaction is essential for the health and well- being of individuals. Human interaction also plays an important role in teaching humans how to be members of their society. You weren’t born knowing to say “please” and “thank you” or that you had to stand in line to buy food at a fast food restaurant. Someone had to teach you these unwritten, but important social rules. 
The lifelong process where individuals learn the values, norms and behaviours of their society is called socialization. Socialization refers to “the learning process through which an individual becomes a capable member of society” (p.64). 
Socialization is a lifelong process. However, the socialization process looks different at different stages of the life course. To help sociologists differentiate between the socialization an infant experiences versus an adult, we use the terms primary socialization and secondary socialization. 
Primary Socialization is the learning that occurs in an individual’s earliest years; plays a role in forming the individual’s personality. This type of socialization sets the tone for future development and it usually occurs in family settings. Through primary socialization, children learn language, norms, values, beliefs, and social skills. 
Secondary Socialization occurs past childhood and throughout adulthood. Individuals learn specific roles, norms, attitudes, and beliefs for different adult situations. For example, throughout your post-secondary education you learn how to participate in discussion, time management, writing professional emails and other ‘work etiquette’. 
(Cumming, 2020)

How do the different sociological perspectives view socialization?Functionalist Perspective •View socialization as essential to the maintenance of society (e.g. reinforcing the rules and values of society)•Socialization teaches people how to integrate into society•When we all follow the same rules and have the same values, society runs more smoothly•social integration: “the internalization of norms and values that allow us to function well as a group”Conflict Perspective 
•Conflict theorists argue that socialization is about power and control•Primary socialization teaches people (especially less powerful groups) their “place” in society•Poor people learn to blame themselves for their social position, and praise the rich for their success•As this socialization is taking place, the structural factors that help the dominant group retain power and control are ignoredFeminist Perspectives
•Feminists argue that socialization is structured by  patriarchy•Patriarchy is defined a system of power that values, implicitly and explicitly, qualities typically associated with men and masculinity (e.g. strength, rationality, logic, etc.)•Patriarchy shapes cultural values and norms•People are socialized based on their gender and learn a gendered identity•For example, girls should “be ladylike” and boys shouldn’t crySymbolic Interactionism As a micro approach, symbolic interactionists are interested in we develop a sense of self through socialization
George Herbert Mead argued that the self develops in three distinct phases of development:1. Preparatory Stage: The child imitates an action without understanding what it means2. Play Stage: The child begins to pretend to take on roles (i.e. parent, teacher, doctor, etc.)3. Game Stage: The child understands their position in a social group, along with the norms and roles of others
(Cumming, 2020)
Generalized other refers to “the common behavioural expectations of general society”. When “An individual is able to internalize how [they] are viewed, not simply from the perspective of several specific others” but from the general expectations of the society as a whole.  (Little, 2016, p. 219)Charles Horton Cooley argued that the self is the result of our social interaction with others. To capture this idea he developed the term the Looking Glass Self which explains that we develop a sense of our self through our interactions with others and imagining how they see us. Our interpretation of how we imagine others see us, helps us to form our self-concept.  
If Cooley was concerned with how the self develops through our interactions, Erving Goffman was interested in how we create an image of ourselves for others by managing their perceptions of us. How do we create and manage peoples’ perceptions of us? 1. Impression management: when an individual puts forth a particular presentation of self in order to satisfy a specific audience (Schaefer & Haaland,  2017, p.82; e.g. social media)2. Face-work: “Need to maintain proper image of self to continue social interaction” (Schaefer & Haaland, 2017, p.83; e.g. embarrassing situation)Let’s look at an example of how we manage peoples’ impressions of us through social media. The Dolly Parton Challenge is a great example of how we mange impressions by presenting a specific version of the self depending on the context and audience. The Dolly Parton challenge went viral and other celebrities posted their own meme;  . 
How do you manage impressions online and off- line?

What and who has a major impact on who you are?
Agents of socialization are the individuals, groups, and social institutions that influence our daily lives. These agents help us to become functioning members of society. 

Primary agents of socialization include:
•Peer groups
•Mass Media 
•Across cultures and societies, families are the most important agents of socialization
•Caregivers are responsible for transmitting cultural and social values to us
•We learn about norms, values, beliefs, and social position
•Families are not “perfect” socializers for various reasons
•Families may also teach us less desirable ideas, like racism, sexism, classism, or homophobia
•Schools teach us skills that we need to function in society. For example, how to read or do math
•Schools also teach the hidden curriculum. We learn about the informal rules of society, our gender roles, and overall our place in society (e.g. class status). For example, gendered rules may be emphasized like they are for sports. Sports teams are gendered and different sports are encouraged for children depending on gender. 
Peer Groups
•A peer group is a group we are linked to by things like age, social position, and common interests (e.g. friends)
•Peer groups are important to our development of sense of belonging, identity, and self-esteem
•Young people experience peer pressure
•The behaviours our peers encourage may differ from what our caregivers teach us is appropriate
Mass Media
•Mass media, like television and the internet, have a big impact because we encounter these things daily
•Social media sites, like Snapchat and Instagram, have changed how we interact with others
•The influence of social media sites is significant
•Some effects are positive: Helping students deal with social anxiety around connecting with peers
•Some effects can be negative: Bullying, Lowered self-esteem, and Narcissism
(Cumming, 2020)

Do boys ‘naturally’ like the colour blue and girls the colour pink? Are girls ‘naturally’ more caring than boys? Are boys ‘naturally’ better at building objects or sports? Or are these gendered traits learned? What role do toys play?
Gender socialization “is an aspect of socialization through which we learn the attitudes, behaviours and practices associated with being male or female (called gender roles)” (Schaefer & Haaland, 2017, p.89).
Gender roles: ideals and expectations associated with being a male or female
Children are taught about socially acceptable gender roles and norms in a number of different ways. How did you learn socially acceptable gender norms?
Using your critical thinking skills, explore how toys contribute to gender socialization. 
Visit  and decide on one age group to explore. Then, narrow your search by gender. Compare the toys that are available in the age group you selected for both boys and girls. Use the following questions to guide your analysis:
1. What kinds of toys are placed into the boy and girl category, respectively? What do these kinds of toys teach children? 
2. Based on your investigation, do the toys reinforce traditional gender roles? Why/why?
3. Watch this short video and think about the role that primary agents of socialization play in gender socialization. 
4. How do toys socialize children into gender roles? 
5. How do you feel about what you learned through this activity? Do you think things should be done differently? If so, how?
(Brehm & Heise, 2011)

At times, it may be necessary for individuals to unlearn and re-learn various values, norms and expectations. When this occurs it is called resocialization. Resocialization refers  to “a learning process that reshapes the individual’s personality by teaching radically different values, norms, and role expectations”. It involves unlearning and discarding previous norms, values and behaviours and accepting new ones. For example, retirement or becoming a parent. 
Resocialization can be voluntary or involuntary. An example of voluntary resocialization is going from being single to a couple. 
Involuntary resocialization usually involves total institutions.  Total institutions are places where people are monitored 24/7, such as prisons, hospitals, and military barracks. These institutions are structured to fundamentally change the people who enter them. The goal is to teach people to conform to social standards of conduct; to “correct them” (e.g. correctional institutions). 
Residential schools in Canada are an example of involuntary resocialization. Learn about the residential school system through the stories of survivors by exploring the   website. 

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