Instructions: Using what you’ve learned from the lectures + reading in this class, fill in the blanks and answer ALL questions on the outline in a DIFFERENT COLOR. In order to earn any points, the outline must be complete, meaning every question is answered. Any blank questions will earn 0 points for the entire outline.
Note: Since you already have the Minerals & Vitamins Table to help you review those topics, they will not be included on this lecture review.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) & MyPlate (use your reading assignment to help with this section)
1. The DGA are nutrition and lifestyle recommendations that are updated every ______ years.
2. The DGA are recommendations designed to promote ________________, and reduce the risk of ____________________, and meet ____________________.
3. The development of the DGA start with reviewing scientific evidence and numbers from the __________________________. It is created through a joint effort by the two U.S. departments: _________________ and _______________. Ultimately, it is translated into ______________ for consumers to use.
4. What types of people/professions will likely use the DGA? (name 3 types from your reading)
5. For about the first 6 months of life, the DGA recommends that infants should be fed exclusively _________________. If this is not available, they should be fed ________________________.
6. A healthy diet pattern can be ___________________ to individual needs and preferences.
7. The DGA recommends that we enjoy nutrient-dense foods as part of a healthy eating pattern. What food groups should be included and limited on a healthy eating pattern?
8. The DGA recommends limiting:
a. added sugars to less than__________ of daily calories
b. saturated fat to less than __________ of daily calories
c. sodium to less than __________ mg per day
9. Are Americans currently meeting the DGA recommendations? Yes or no? ______________
10. Where does most of the added sugar come from in the U.S. diet? _____________________
11. Where does most of the sodium come from in the U.S. diet? _________________________
12. MyPlate is a visual nutrition guide based off the DGA and it emphasizes ___________________, _________________, ________________________ and _________________________ foods to help balance nutrients and calories.
13. Is MyPlate available in only English? Yes or No? ________
14. Fill in the MyPlate Food groups and their recommendations (for a 2000 kcal diet). (click on dotted lines to type your answer or type your answers underneath the diagram as a list)
Healthy Diet Planning
1. Why is it important to develop an eating pattern that is satisfying to you?
2. Diet planning involves: _____________________, ______________________, and _______________________.
3. Name some foods for each food group that you might include on a MyPlate food pattern:
e. Calcium-rich food/beverage:
4. _________________ Calories provide many calories but little nutrients. They mostly come from foods with __________________________ or _________________________.
1. A Dietary supplement is a product that contains one or more ________________________ intended to _______________________ the diet.
2. Fill in the table with two (3) reasons why someone should consider a dietary supplement and explain WHY those individuals might need to take one.
Why might this person need a dietary supplement
3. What are some specific supplement recommendations for the following groups?:- Elderly:_______________________________________________________- Smokers:______________________________________________________- Pregnant women:_______________________________________________
4. What two things did DSHEA 1994 accomplish regarding supplement regulation?
5. The FDA __________________________ regulates the dietary supplement industry.
6. If you experience an adverse effect from taking a dietary supplement, what should you do?
7. ______________________________________ is where supplement companies hire outside agencies to test their products.
8. What are some other companies that do these types of testing on supplements?
1. The __________________________________________ (________) regulates food labels.
2. Serving sizes on the labels are not recommendations of how much to eat, but rather they are based on the amount that is _____________________________________.
3. My bag of chips has the following information on the Nutrition Facts Servings per container: 4 Serving size: 1 cup Calories: 120
If I ate the ENTIRE bag, how many calories would I be consuming?_______________ calories
4. What does the % Daily Value show?
5. If a serving of food provides _______% DV or less/serving, it is ___________ in that nutrient.
6. If a serving of food provides _______% DV or more/serving, it is __________ in that nutrient.
7. How are nutrients chosen for listing on food labels?
8. Nutrients listed on the Nutrition Facts label that we should be getting less of include:_______________, __________________, _________________, & _________________
9. Nutrients listed on the Nutrition Facts label that we should be getting more of include:________________, __________________, _________________, __________________, & _________________
10. If a Nutrition Facts tells me there is 20 grams of Total sugar in the food and it includes 10 grams of added sugar, how many grams of sugar are natural? __________ grams
11. On ingredient lists, the ingredient that is ___________________________ is listed first.
12. Front of package labeling of nutrients (Facts up Front) is _______________________ and done by food companies. Claims on the front of food labels are regulated by the FDA.
13. DESCRIBE each type of claim (what are they telling us) and give one specific example of each:
a. Nutrient Content Claim:Example:
b. Health Claim: Example: (hint –the claim should say something about a disease or health state, not just a nutrient!)
c. Qualified Health Claim:Example: (note: do not just write “may” or “might,” write an entire claim):
d. Structure/Function Claim:
1. Alcohol is used to refer to beverages that contain ______________________.
2. One drink typically has ______ – ______ g ethanol and _________ Calories from alcohol alone.
3. One drink is equivalent to ____________ of wine, ________ of beer, and _________ of distilled spirits.
4. Moderate alcohol consumption is ___________ drink/day for women and _________ drinks/day for men.
5. Alcohol can have immediate effect in the body because it is absorbed in the __________________________________. Peak blood alcohol concentrations happen within __________ of ingestion.
6. List the factors that can slow down alcohol absorption:
7. Alcohol is metabolized by the _______________ and is given metabolic _________________, meaning it will be metabolized before any other toxin.
8. __________________________________(_______) metabolizes small amounts of alcohol. With great amounts ingestion, the ______________________________________________(________) helps to metabolize alcohol.
9. Ethanol is metabolized into __________________________, which is toxic and can degrade to form _____________________, which can be used to make fatty acids. (see the picture on the “Alcohol metabolism” slide from lecture or Fig. 12.24 on page 414 of your textbook)
10. Describe why it is dangerous to take some medications (like Tylenol) with alcohol.
11. Why is it unsafe to drink alcohol and drive a car? (include short term effects of alcohol)
12. Alcoholic liver disease is progressive. The first stage is _______________________, a condition where ______ accumulates in the liver. If alcohol consumption continues, it can develop into the second stage, _____________________________, where the liver becomes inflamed. Both of these can be ____________________ if alcohol is stopped. Once the liver stops functioning and fibrous connective tissue form, stage 3, or _____________________ has developed, which is irreversible.
13. List three (3) reasons why alcohol might contribute to malnutrition:
14. Describe the potential health risks and benefits of alcohol consumption.
Cancer (use your Cancer reading to help answer these new few questions)
1. _________________ is when old or damaged cells undergo programmed cell death.
2. Describe the multi-step process of cancer development (provide name of the step & DESCRIBE what is happening in that step):
3. If a tumor is ___________________, it is cancerous. If it is __________________, it is not.
4. Early ____________________ is one of the best way to prevent deaths from cancer. If a cancer is found, it can be treated with _________________________, ___________________________, and _______________________.
5. Consuming adequate protein and nutrient dense foods ensure adequate nutrition for cancer patients. Provide 2 examples of each:- Protein rich foods:____________________________, ___________________________- Nutrient dense foods: _________________________, ___________________________
6. If 25% of cancers are due to non-modifiable risk factors, like genetics, what percent of cancers are due to environment and lifestyle risk factors? ________% (hint: 100% – 25% = _____%)
7. Based on the 8 nutrition recommendations to prevent cancer, name 3 that you could realistically incorporate into your life:
1. The four components of fitness are _____________________, ___________________, __________________, and ___________________________.
2. Aerobic activity increases VO2 max and lowers __________________________. Examples of aerobic activity are ______________________ and _____________________.
3. Anaerobic activity consists of ____________________ of ____________________ activity, lasting about _____________ seconds.
4. Muscle strengthening activities cause muscles to increase in strength/size, known as _____________________________. It also builds muscle ____________________.
5. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends ___________ minutes of moderate-intensity or _______________minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise weekly and performing muscle-strengthening activities at least ________ days/week.
6. Aerobic activity raises heart rate to ____________ of maximum. As we get older, our max heart rate ________________________. (see graph on “Exercise in the aerobic zone” slide for help)
7. What are some of the benefits of exercise?
8. Aerobic metabolism is done when ______________ is present and uses ________________, _______________, and ____________ for fuel. It produces _____________ ATP compared to anaerobic metabolism. Aerobic metabolism is used at rest and for light/moderate activity.
9. Anaerobic metabolism only uses ________________ for fuel. This is done when intensity of activity increases.
10. In the first few seconds of a workout, ATP is supplied by ATP-creatine phosphate. Since this is limited, while inadequate oxygen is available, ________________ metabolism uses blood or muscle __________________ to make ATP. Once oxygen delivery has increased enough, we switch to __________________ metabolism, which uses both _____________________ and _________________ to make ATP.
11. Are amino acids a predominant source of fuel for exercise? Yes or no? ___________
12. Fatigue or “hitting the wall” occurs when _______________ stores are depleted. Athletes can maximize stores by ________________for 1-3 days before competition while eating a very _____________ carbohydrate diet, consisting of _______ – ______ g carb/kg of body weight/day.
13. Describe the macronutrient needs for athletes:
c. Protein: (be specific with recommendations for both strength & endurance athletes!)
14. The purpose of water is to transport _______________ and _______________ to muscles, and to remove waste. It also ___________________________________ so we don’t overheat. Without adequate water, ______________________ can occur, which reduces performance.
15. Describe the fluid recommendations for athletes:
a. Before exercise:
b. During exercise:
c. After exercise:
d. For exercise lasting 1hr:
16. An example of a meal you should consume before exercise is ________________________. (contains high carbohydrate, moderate protein and fat, low fiber)
17. An example of something you can consume during exercise is _______________________. (contains carbohydrate and electrolytes)
18. An example of something you should consume after exercise is _______________________. (contains sodium, high carbohydrate, and protein)
Note: you should be able to understand WHY these nutrients are recommended. Make sure you understand the main goals before, during, and after exercise when it comes to nutrition.
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