Why immunosuppressants? Used when? – This Assignment Help

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Why immunosuppressants? Used when? – This Assignment Help 

 
Defence Against Disease
 
 
 
Type: holistic – all assignment
 
1.1   linking 1.1 with 1.2
 
The body’s non-specific defenses against disease or prevention of the disease-causing agents from accessing entry into the body. Allowing the microorganisms into body tissues can destroy deeper tissues that play a major role in body defense against infections (Urb M, Sheppard DC, 2012). Chemical barriers produce tears and saliva that contain hydrochloric acid which play the role if destroying any germs contained in food. Semen is another chemical barrier that assists in the inhibition of bacteria in the urethra tract. The skin largely represents physical mechanisms that help fight infection. It has a thick layer on top that does not allow penetration of pathogens to the inner parts of the body. Keratin which is the outermost layer is impervious to infection. ( reference)
 
The complement system, contain proteins that are circulated in every organ containing blood in which their encounter with germs cause them to leak and fade away. Also, in the process of blood circulation, the proteins destroy any unknown pathogen. Phagocytes expand  are part of the non-specific defenses; they engulf pathogens in the blood system by surrounding their presence. Phagocytes break the pathogens thus, making them leak and die. This is through by surrounding them causing breakage and destruction by use of phagocyte membrane. So what is phagosytosis? (reference)
 
2.1 you have alredy started explaining phagocytes    linked 1.1 with 1.2
 
Use of Appendix if you need to expand more
 
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was the first person to discover phagocytes. He experimented this by inserting thorns into a larva of a tree. After some time it was he recognized that the thorns had been surrounded by phagocytes. Another scientist was Almroth Wright who discovered that phagocytes were enforced by opsonins which were antibodies that reinforced their presence. Phagocytes perform their role either externally or internally. They use the reactive oxygen-containing molecule (Taylor ML, Metcalfe DD; Metcalfe, 2001). A case where an increase in oxygen produces a more reactive process of the molecules that contain oxygen. The surrounding of oxygen to the invader and toxic infection, are after that destroyed. Use of myeloperoxidase enzymes is another mode of performing their action. They produce hypochlorite a substance that is highly toxic to any virus thus help prevent any bacteria from causing an infection. Myeloperoxidase secret neutrophils that fight away virus when one is affected by pus or is infected with sputum through the green coloring pigment heme. (reference)
 
2.2
 
The lymphocyte is among the different types of disease-fighting organs in the white blood cell. T cells produce cytokines that are the main cells that direct the immune response to an infection. T cells produce granules that are toxic due to the power of enzymes contained in it; they make the pathogens die by destroying their cells. B cells produce a very high number of quantitative antibodies; they neutralize any foreign invasion of bacteria and virus (Segal G, Lee W, Arora PD, 2001). Both cells play specific and non-specific roles in protecting the body. Through the presentation of antigens, the cells respond directly to the pathogens in a more direct way. They achieve this by quickly identifying infections.  Very good
 
2.3
 
Memory cells play a long-term task of defending the body against disease by instructing the responsible organs that play the role through the production of antibodies. The cells of the memory are adapted in a way that their response to infection to the responsible organs that protect the body is quick and more efficient. For example, if a similar infection attacks the body again, the response will be much quicker and done in a reliable method (Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ; Galli 2008). Formation of antibodies by B lymphocyte cells help fight against any virus that attacks the body. Through this, there is the formation of memory cells that help in recalling of similar pathogen thus fight them faster and easier. This process occurs similarly if the same pathogens attack the body in the future.    Very good
 
2.4
 
Most antibodies perform their roles in their molecular structure. They contain a region that varies and is located on the Fan. This allows easy attachment of antigen to the antibodies (Couzinet S, Cejas E, Schittny J, Deplazes P, Weber R, 2000). The Fan region allows any antigen to attach easily to the structures of the antibodies. This makes the bacteria and virus be destroyed. The sturdy structure between a pair of light chains and sturdy structure; hence a variety of antigens can attach themselves in multiple formations. This allows the antibodies to engulf the pathogens by breaking. The constant region of the molecular structure is Fc shaped; thus, the ability to accommodate phagocytes that engulf pathogens in the blood system leading to their death. Disulfide bonds help to maintain the strength of linking light and heavy chains for easy attachment of antigens. This position helps them to locate the invasion of pathogens. Most of the antibodies are well structured to fit in the role they play. It will make it hard for the antigens to fight diseases if their positions are not well located. Very good – reference please
 
3.1
 
Active immunity refers to the act of exposing the body to an antigen for the generation of an immunity that is more adaptive to the response of pathogen infection. This action may take some weeks to be developed in the body, but it performs its role for a time. While passive immunity refers to the act of giving IgG antibodies in the protection of any infection that may occur. It starts to function immediately but performs its role for a short period. It is classified into acquired and natural. Acquired immune relates to the process of serum extraction from individuals with a high level of immunity. Natural immune is the transfer of antibodies from the mother to newborn babies.
 
Artificial immunity is the act of the body’s response to fight pathogens directly through the production of antibodies that play a specific role related to each the infection. It does not fight the pathogen immediately but takes sometime before to gather the right antibodies to fight disease-causing germs. Artificial immunity is a response of the immune system that is obtained outside the body (Malaviya R, Twesten NJ, Ross EA, Abraham SN, 1996).  For example, immunity passed from a breastfeeding mother to the child. They, however, need no time to collect or gather antibodies for fighting off pathogens. It does not last for a long period. Another example is immunization where one is exposed to a pathogen with the purpose of fighting away infection. The immune response to vaccination is, however, a weakened state but it helps in protection of the body.
 
Needed to improve this section, compare artificial and natural – linked in holistic way all assignment
 
Use always reference and if you need to explain more use appendix
 
More examples and stay in topic
 
3.2 
 
holystic type of assignment
 
Linked together 3.2 with 3.3
 
Vaccination provides an immune that is acquired and is aimed at a particular pathogen. Provision of agents through immunization stimulates the body by helping it fight the infection and thus, destroying it (Rez al et, 2002). The methods through which vaccines are produced include the following. Vaccines are delivered through the generation of an antigen, whereby the antigen that activates the immune system is collected growing of bacterias in a bioreactor for optimization of the antigens.
 
    The antigens can be released and isolated in the presence of numerous virus or bacteria. Purification should be considered since it produces antigens that are of high quality. Addition of other components will boost in the enhancement of immune response recipient in the course of the supplied antigen. After everything is followed according to packing follows whereby the vaccine is sealed and availed to the target. (Reference your work)
 
3.3 reed this section and combine in holystic way with 3.2
 
Vaccines on smallpox protect the intended purpose. The vaccine of smallpox is less harmful as opposed to other vaccines (Connell ai et, 1996). The vaccine of this pathogen is usually live vaccinia and not a dead virus as compared to other vaccines. This is the main reason why such kind of individuals given smallpox vaccination need to be cautious because it can spread to other body parts. Smallpox vaccine has ever been effective where the rate of vaccination is approximated to be 95% of the individuals vaccinated. In the United States, the disease was eradicated in 1972. The vaccine protects one for a long period usually with a maximum of five years compared to other infections. In other vaccines like TB, malaria or cholera, there may be side effects like skin rash or fever which cannot be prevented, but smallpox vaccine has a safe method to control such effects. (Reference your work)
 
– explain about all vaccines and speak about effectivens
 
Small pox vaccine effectivenes 91-95% 10 years…………….influenza, polio, malaria, cholera etc…
 
Compare with all other vaccines
 
Where is effective?
 
Why? What kind of vaccines is?
 
Describe     and put in appendix if you can’t stay in word count
 
Reference please
 
 
 
4.1
 
Immunity issues related to it and can cause infections when administered should be taken seriously. For example, allergic issues may result due to overreaction or under reaction. In this case, the lives of people can be threatened and as such severe preventive actions should be administered. People who have undergone transplant surgery should be given immunosuppression treatment to prevent the body system from infecting the area that has been transplanted. (Reference your work)
 
Why immunosuppressants? Used when? (Reference your work)
 
detailed
 
People with an inability to manufacture or produce enough of their own should undergo a therapy known us immunoglobulin (Birge RB, Ucker DS; Ucker, 2008). Any immunization should consider the health, age, lifestyle, and occupation of a person because it can bring side effects if not well managed. Any autoimmune disease can be controlled through the gut because they do not have a cure. There is a high prevalence of men affected by autoimmune infection about women. Any allergic reaction after immunization can be controlled to avoid endangering the lives of the person. (Reference your work)
 
Use specific examples of allergies and autoimmune disease to explain and discuss immune issues. Transplant surgery can be discussed in general.
 
All linked
 
Explain allergies in details, transplant sugery and auto-immune disease
 
 
 
Use Distinction command words : assess, analyse, evaluate, recommend, make recommendations, select and demonstrate, review
 
 
 
Please use of examples for JUST FOR UK
 
PLEASE STAY IN THE WORD COUNT AND USE OF APPENDIX IF YOU CAN’T
 
 
 
Examples of autoimmune
 
·         Multiple sclerosis
 
·         Myasthenia gravis
 
·         Crohn’s disease
 
·         Grave’s disease
 
·         Type/diabetes mellitus
 
·         Rheumatoid arthritis
 
·         Psoriasis
 
·         Scleroderma
 
·         Systemic lupus erythematosus
 
Choose one of them and explain
 
How does it get it?
 
Why?
 
Causes?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
 
Birge RB, Ucker DS; Ucker. “Innate apoptotic immunity: the calming touch of death.” Cell Death Differ. 15 (7): 1096–1102. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.58. PMID 18451871. (2008)
 
 Connell I, Agace W, Klemm P, Schembri M, Mărild S, Svanborg C; Agace; Klemm; Schembri; Mărild; Svanborg (September 1996). “Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (18): 9827–32. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.18.9827. PMC 38514. PMID 8790416. .(September 1996).
 
 Couzinet S, Cejas E, Schittny J, Deplazes P, Weber R, Zimmerli S; Cejas; Schittny; Deplazes; Weber; Zimmerli. “Phagocytic uptake of Encephalitozoon cuniculi by nonprofessional phagocytes“. Infect. Immun. 68 (12): 6939–45. doi:10.1128/IAI.68.12.6939-6945.2000. PMC 97802. PMID 11083817.  (December 2000).
 
Iez P, Valladeau J, Zitvogel L, Théry C, Amigorena S; Valladeau; Zitvogel; Théry; Amigorena. “Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells“. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20: 621–67. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.20.100301.064828. PMID 11861614. (2002).
 
Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ; Galli . “New developments in mast cell biology“. Nature Immunology. 9 (11): 1215–23. doi:10.1038/ni.f.216. PMC 2856637. PMID 18936782.(November 2008).
 
Malaviya R, Abraham SN; Abraham (February 2001). “Mast cell modulation of immune responses to bacteria“. Immunol. Rev. 179: 16–24. doi:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2001.790102.x. PMID 11292019. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. . (February 2001)
 
 Malaviya R, Twesten NJ, Ross EA, Abraham SN, Pfeifer JD; Twesten; Ross; Abraham; Pfeifer.  “Mast cells process bacterial Ags through a phagocytic route for class I MHC presentation to T cells“. J. Immunol. 156 (4): 1490–96. PMID 8568252. (February 1996)
 
 Segal G, Lee W, Arora PD, McKee M, Downey G, McCulloch CA; Lee; Arora; McKee; Downey; McCulloch. “Involvement of actin filaments and integrins in the binding step in collagen phagocytosis by human fibroblasts“. Journal of Cell Science. 114 (Pt 1): 119–129. PMID 11112696. (January 2001)
 
Taylor ML, Metcalfe DD; Metcalfe.  “Mast cells in allergy and host defense“. Allergy Asthma Proc. 22 (3): 115–19. doi:10.2500/108854101778148764. PMID 11424870. (2001)
 
Urb M, Sheppard DC. “The role of mast cells in the defense against pathogens“. PLoS Pathogens. 8 (4): e1002619. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002619. PMC 3343118. PMID 22577358. (2012)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Why immunosuppressants? Used when? – This Assignment Help

 
Defence Against Disease
 
 
 
Type: holistic – all assignment
 
1.1   linking 1.1 with 1.2
 
The body’s non-specific defenses against disease or prevention of the disease-causing agents from accessing entry into the body. Allowing the microorganisms into body tissues can destroy deeper tissues that play a major role in body defense against infections (Urb M, Sheppard DC, 2012). Chemical barriers produce tears and saliva that contain hydrochloric acid which play the role if destroying any germs contained in food. Semen is another chemical barrier that assists in the inhibition of bacteria in the urethra tract. The skin largely represents physical mechanisms that help fight infection. It has a thick layer on top that does not allow penetration of pathogens to the inner parts of the body. Keratin which is the outermost layer is impervious to infection. ( reference)
 
The complement system, contain proteins that are circulated in every organ containing blood in which their encounter with germs cause them to leak and fade away. Also, in the process of blood circulation, the proteins destroy any unknown pathogen. Phagocytes expand  are part of the non-specific defenses; they engulf pathogens in the blood system by surrounding their presence. Phagocytes break the pathogens thus, making them leak and die. This is through by surrounding them causing breakage and destruction by use of phagocyte membrane. So what is phagosytosis? (reference)
 
2.1 you have alredy started explaining phagocytes    linked 1.1 with 1.2
 
Use of Appendix if you need to expand more
 
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was the first person to discover phagocytes. He experimented this by inserting thorns into a larva of a tree. After some time it was he recognized that the thorns had been surrounded by phagocytes. Another scientist was Almroth Wright who discovered that phagocytes were enforced by opsonins which were antibodies that reinforced their presence. Phagocytes perform their role either externally or internally. They use the reactive oxygen-containing molecule (Taylor ML, Metcalfe DD; Metcalfe, 2001). A case where an increase in oxygen produces a more reactive process of the molecules that contain oxygen. The surrounding of oxygen to the invader and toxic infection, are after that destroyed. Use of myeloperoxidase enzymes is another mode of performing their action. They produce hypochlorite a substance that is highly toxic to any virus thus help prevent any bacteria from causing an infection. Myeloperoxidase secret neutrophils that fight away virus when one is affected by pus or is infected with sputum through the green coloring pigment heme. (reference)
 
2.2
 
The lymphocyte is among the different types of disease-fighting organs in the white blood cell. T cells produce cytokines that are the main cells that direct the immune response to an infection. T cells produce granules that are toxic due to the power of enzymes contained in it; they make the pathogens die by destroying their cells. B cells produce a very high number of quantitative antibodies; they neutralize any foreign invasion of bacteria and virus (Segal G, Lee W, Arora PD, 2001). Both cells play specific and non-specific roles in protecting the body. Through the presentation of antigens, the cells respond directly to the pathogens in a more direct way. They achieve this by quickly identifying infections.  Very good
 
2.3
 
Memory cells play a long-term task of defending the body against disease by instructing the responsible organs that play the role through the production of antibodies. The cells of the memory are adapted in a way that their response to infection to the responsible organs that protect the body is quick and more efficient. For example, if a similar infection attacks the body again, the response will be much quicker and done in a reliable method (Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ; Galli 2008). Formation of antibodies by B lymphocyte cells help fight against any virus that attacks the body. Through this, there is the formation of memory cells that help in recalling of similar pathogen thus fight them faster and easier. This process occurs similarly if the same pathogens attack the body in the future.    Very good
 
2.4
 
Most antibodies perform their roles in their molecular structure. They contain a region that varies and is located on the Fan. This allows easy attachment of antigen to the antibodies (Couzinet S, Cejas E, Schittny J, Deplazes P, Weber R, 2000). The Fan region allows any antigen to attach easily to the structures of the antibodies. This makes the bacteria and virus be destroyed. The sturdy structure between a pair of light chains and sturdy structure; hence a variety of antigens can attach themselves in multiple formations. This allows the antibodies to engulf the pathogens by breaking. The constant region of the molecular structure is Fc shaped; thus, the ability to accommodate phagocytes that engulf pathogens in the blood system leading to their death. Disulfide bonds help to maintain the strength of linking light and heavy chains for easy attachment of antigens. This position helps them to locate the invasion of pathogens. Most of the antibodies are well structured to fit in the role they play. It will make it hard for the antigens to fight diseases if their positions are not well located. Very good – reference please
 
3.1
 
Active immunity refers to the act of exposing the body to an antigen for the generation of an immunity that is more adaptive to the response of pathogen infection. This action may take some weeks to be developed in the body, but it performs its role for a time. While passive immunity refers to the act of giving IgG antibodies in the protection of any infection that may occur. It starts to function immediately but performs its role for a short period. It is classified into acquired and natural. Acquired immune relates to the process of serum extraction from individuals with a high level of immunity. Natural immune is the transfer of antibodies from the mother to newborn babies.
 
Artificial immunity is the act of the body’s response to fight pathogens directly through the production of antibodies that play a specific role related to each the infection. It does not fight the pathogen immediately but takes sometime before to gather the right antibodies to fight disease-causing germs. Artificial immunity is a response of the immune system that is obtained outside the body (Malaviya R, Twesten NJ, Ross EA, Abraham SN, 1996).  For example, immunity passed from a breastfeeding mother to the child. They, however, need no time to collect or gather antibodies for fighting off pathogens. It does not last for a long period. Another example is immunization where one is exposed to a pathogen with the purpose of fighting away infection. The immune response to vaccination is, however, a weakened state but it helps in protection of the body.
 
Needed to improve this section, compare artificial and natural – linked in holistic way all assignment
 
Use always reference and if you need to explain more use appendix
 
More examples and stay in topic
 
3.2 
 
holystic type of assignment
 
Linked together 3.2 with 3.3
 
Vaccination provides an immune that is acquired and is aimed at a particular pathogen. Provision of agents through immunization stimulates the body by helping it fight the infection and thus, destroying it (Rez al et, 2002). The methods through which vaccines are produced include the following. Vaccines are delivered through the generation of an antigen, whereby the antigen that activates the immune system is collected growing of bacterias in a bioreactor for optimization of the antigens.
 
    The antigens can be released and isolated in the presence of numerous virus or bacteria. Purification should be considered since it produces antigens that are of high quality. Addition of other components will boost in the enhancement of immune response recipient in the course of the supplied antigen. After everything is followed according to packing follows whereby the vaccine is sealed and availed to the target. (Reference your work)
 
3.3 reed this section and combine in holystic way with 3.2
 
Vaccines on smallpox protect the intended purpose. The vaccine of smallpox is less harmful as opposed to other vaccines (Connell ai et, 1996). The vaccine of this pathogen is usually live vaccinia and not a dead virus as compared to other vaccines. This is the main reason why such kind of individuals given smallpox vaccination need to be cautious because it can spread to other body parts. Smallpox vaccine has ever been effective where the rate of vaccination is approximated to be 95% of the individuals vaccinated. In the United States, the disease was eradicated in 1972. The vaccine protects one for a long period usually with a maximum of five years compared to other infections. In other vaccines like TB, malaria or cholera, there may be side effects like skin rash or fever which cannot be prevented, but smallpox vaccine has a safe method to control such effects. (Reference your work)
 
– explain about all vaccines and speak about effectivens
 
Small pox vaccine effectivenes 91-95% 10 years…………….influenza, polio, malaria, cholera etc…
 
Compare with all other vaccines
 
Where is effective?
 
Why? What kind of vaccines is?
 
Describe     and put in appendix if you can’t stay in word count
 
Reference please
 
 
 
4.1
 
Immunity issues related to it and can cause infections when administered should be taken seriously. For example, allergic issues may result due to overreaction or under reaction. In this case, the lives of people can be threatened and as such severe preventive actions should be administered. People who have undergone transplant surgery should be given immunosuppression treatment to prevent the body system from infecting the area that has been transplanted. (Reference your work)
 
Why immunosuppressants? Used when? (Reference your work)
 
detailed
 
People with an inability to manufacture or produce enough of their own should undergo a therapy known us immunoglobulin (Birge RB, Ucker DS; Ucker, 2008). Any immunization should consider the health, age, lifestyle, and occupation of a person because it can bring side effects if not well managed. Any autoimmune disease can be controlled through the gut because they do not have a cure. There is a high prevalence of men affected by autoimmune infection about women. Any allergic reaction after immunization can be controlled to avoid endangering the lives of the person. (Reference your work)
 
Use specific examples of allergies and autoimmune disease to explain and discuss immune issues. Transplant surgery can be discussed in general.
 
All linked
 
Explain allergies in details, transplant sugery and auto-immune disease
 
 
 
Use Distinction command words : assess, analyse, evaluate, recommend, make recommendations, select and demonstrate, review
 
 
 
Please use of examples for JUST FOR UK
 
PLEASE STAY IN THE WORD COUNT AND USE OF APPENDIX IF YOU CAN’T
 
 
 
Examples of autoimmune
 
·         Multiple sclerosis
 
·         Myasthenia gravis
 
·         Crohn’s disease
 
·         Grave’s disease
 
·         Type/diabetes mellitus
 
·         Rheumatoid arthritis
 
·         Psoriasis
 
·         Scleroderma
 
·         Systemic lupus erythematosus
 
Choose one of them and explain
 
How does it get it?
 
Why?
 
Causes?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
 
Birge RB, Ucker DS; Ucker. “Innate apoptotic immunity: the calming touch of death.” Cell Death Differ. 15 (7): 1096–1102. doi:10.1038/cdd.2008.58. PMID 18451871. (2008)
 
 Connell I, Agace W, Klemm P, Schembri M, Mărild S, Svanborg C; Agace; Klemm; Schembri; Mărild; Svanborg (September 1996). “Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (18): 9827–32. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.18.9827. PMC 38514. PMID 8790416. .(September 1996).
 
 Couzinet S, Cejas E, Schittny J, Deplazes P, Weber R, Zimmerli S; Cejas; Schittny; Deplazes; Weber; Zimmerli. “Phagocytic uptake of Encephalitozoon cuniculi by nonprofessional phagocytes“. Infect. Immun. 68 (12): 6939–45. doi:10.1128/IAI.68.12.6939-6945.2000. PMC 97802. PMID 11083817.  (December 2000).
 
Iez P, Valladeau J, Zitvogel L, Théry C, Amigorena S; Valladeau; Zitvogel; Théry; Amigorena. “Antigen presentation and T cell stimulation by dendritic cells“. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 20: 621–67. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.20.100301.064828. PMID 11861614. (2002).
 
Kalesnikoff J, Galli SJ; Galli . “New developments in mast cell biology“. Nature Immunology. 9 (11): 1215–23. doi:10.1038/ni.f.216. PMC 2856637. PMID 18936782.(November 2008).
 
Malaviya R, Abraham SN; Abraham (February 2001). “Mast cell modulation of immune responses to bacteria“. Immunol. Rev. 179: 16–24. doi:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2001.790102.x. PMID 11292019. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. . (February 2001)
 
 Malaviya R, Twesten NJ, Ross EA, Abraham SN, Pfeifer JD; Twesten; Ross; Abraham; Pfeifer.  “Mast cells process bacterial Ags through a phagocytic route for class I MHC presentation to T cells“. J. Immunol. 156 (4): 1490–96. PMID 8568252. (February 1996)
 
 Segal G, Lee W, Arora PD, McKee M, Downey G, McCulloch CA; Lee; Arora; McKee; Downey; McCulloch. “Involvement of actin filaments and integrins in the binding step in collagen phagocytosis by human fibroblasts“. Journal of Cell Science. 114 (Pt 1): 119–129. PMID 11112696. (January 2001)
 
Taylor ML, Metcalfe DD; Metcalfe.  “Mast cells in allergy and host defense“. Allergy Asthma Proc. 22 (3): 115–19. doi:10.2500/108854101778148764. PMID 11424870. (2001)
 
Urb M, Sheppard DC. “The role of mast cells in the defense against pathogens“. PLoS Pathogens. 8 (4): e1002619. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002619. PMC 3343118. PMID 22577358. (2012)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Click here to request for this assignment help

The post Why immunosuppressants? Used when? – This Assignment Help appeared first on LindasHelp.

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